Alexander Palace Forum

Discussions about Russian History => Imperial Russian History => Topic started by: Zenit21 on October 16, 2009, 10:30:19 AM

Title: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Zenit21 on October 16, 2009, 10:30:19 AM
"Soul - to God, Loyalty to - the Crown, The Honor - to nobody"
         
  Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim. (4 june 1867 - 28 january 1951)
  Russian General, White Finish General, Marshal of Finland
  President of Finland.
  Devoted to Nicholas II until his last days.
  Legion of Honour (Grand Cross)
  Order of the British Empire (GBE)
  Order of St. George (Russian Empire) (4 class)
  Iron Cross (with Oak Leaves)
  and more then 100 decorations.
 
Interesting facts about the life of the Big leader of a small country.
    He served in the army of Russia (1887-1917) (Genneral Lieutenant), Regent of Finland (1918-1919) fought against the Soviet Union (1939-1940) (1941-1944) (Marshal).
Since 1944, on the side of the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany. The President of Finland (1944-1946)
   Born into an aristocratic Swedish family in Finland (Russia's principality)
He studied at the Nicholas Cavalry School in St. Petersburg.
He is married to a Russian. Two daughters (devoted themselves to religion)
   Participated in four wars, Russian-Japanese war (1905) , The First World, Finnish Civil War (1918) (White Victory), the Second World War.
   Monarchist, devoted until his last years to Nicholas II, then defended Finland from Bolsheviks (1918) and proclaimed a republic. Finland became a democratic country.
   He was only ally of Hitler, that did not give him the Jews during war. Refused the bombing of Petersburg. Only Marshal of Finland in it's history. Create his own Order of the Mannerheim Cross. (design similar to the Order of St.George)
   Fluent in Russian, English, French and German. Finnish known poorly, for that he had been joked hardly in Finland. Also knew several languages and understand Chinese. 
   Honorary Member of the Russian Geographical Society. Had a mission in China for 2 years (1906-1908) during which met with the Dalai Lama. Geographical studies were a cover for intelligence activities. After the expedition he met with Nicholas II.
Was well received in the most elite circles of Russia empire. On several occasions met personally with Nicholas II and Alexandra Feodorovna.
   Was the only man in history to receive during the First and Second World Wars awards from both the opposing sides. Among all the commanders during World War II had the highest rank in the First World. He was General of Cavalry (1918)
   He loved order, but did not like the Germans (in First World War he fought for Russia). Although he had the Iron Cross (1918) and fought for Hitler against the USSR until 1944.
   He loved Russian cuisine and liked sometimes  to drink a glass of vodka
Respected the Orthodox religion , but was Protestant. 
Until the end of his days on the desktop had a portrait with a photograph of Nicholas II.
   He is respected in Russia, Sweden and Finland. But he remains one of the most controversial figures in military history to this day. In Finland, for example, he was always being called Russian, for his devotion to Russia. In Russia he will always be remembered, mainly among ordinary people, only for his war against USSR and his legendary Mannerheim Line.
  All in all His life can be characterized  like this this sad expression :
       "Insider among strangers and stranger among insiders".
(http://img193.imageshack.us/img193/9984/56789.th.jpg) (http://img193.imageshack.us/i/56789.jpg/)
       
 
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on October 16, 2009, 11:25:22 AM
I read a book about him recently, Mannerheim - The Finnish years by J.E.O Screen, it is mostly about the time of when he was Marshal, and after president of Finland, until his last years of life, but I'd like to read a book about the time of when he served in the Russian army.
He is a very interesting historical character, but unfortunately it's rarely mentioned in the books of history here in my country....or better, he is mentioned sometimes, but it's very rare to find detailed informations about his life and his military and political career...a pity.

http://www.mannerheim.fi/navi-e/05_keh.htm
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Zenit21 on October 16, 2009, 12:09:09 PM
Yes it is very sad that for the world he still known only for Mannerheim Line anf Winter War(1939).
In fact he was very interesting person. For example, the Empress Maria Feodorovna was inspired of him (frendship). She helped him in his career
And later when she was in exile Mannerheim met her.
  Or that he offered Kolchak 100000 soldiers to go  to Petrograd during the Civil War. Instead he requested the recognition of independence of Finland from White Movement. But Kolchak denied his help.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on October 17, 2009, 09:41:55 AM
the Empress Maria Feodorovna was inspired of him (frendship). She helped him in his career

Another reason why I consider Empress Maria Feodorovna as a very intelligent and farsighted person.

As you have correctly said, Mannerheim was always devoted to Nicholas II (although he considered him as an irresoluted Ruler), I wonder if the Tsar reciprocated that admiration, do you know something about a meeting of them?...

(http://inlinethumb12.webshots.com/44363/2507912950101857556S600x600Q85.jpg) (http://good-times.webshots.com/photo/2507912950101857556iYHjjr)(http://inlinethumb15.webshots.com/45390/2763254290101857556S600x600Q85.jpg) (http://good-times.webshots.com/photo/2763254290101857556KCIvGs)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Zenit21 on October 17, 2009, 01:29:09 PM
Here are excerpts from the Mannerheim memoirs.
Unfortunately, he wrote them in a very terse language. He'd always conceal his emotions and left to us much unsaid.
But anyway, I found in this memoirs something interesting.
This is my translation from Russian, sorry for small mistakes.

About Maria Feodorovna: 
  "Once a year the chief of our regiment Empress Maria Feodorovna with her husband Emperor Alexander III had hosted all the officers of our regiment. Empress, the daughter of Danish King Christian IX, always sympathetic to Finland, and we Finns called her with her  northern woman's name - Empress Dagmar. Later, during my travels in Central Europe, I visited Denmark, and I had the opportunity to express all my respects to Her Majesty, who lived in that country for her last years".

About his personal meetings with the Emperor:
 
Meeting after his expedition in China (1906-1908).
    "I received an invitation to the emperor to tell him him about my expedition. I asked him how long time will be given to me, and he said that twenty minutes will be enough. Since the emperor was not going to sit down, I asked if he could start, he nodded. I reported standing. Questions that Emperor asked to me showed that he found my report interesting. Present from the Dalai Lama, he taken in accordance with tradition - at arm's length.
   Looking at the table clock, I noticed that my report took not twenty minutes, it took one hour and twenty minutes. I immediately apologized, explaining that I did not noticed, as time passed. His Majesty smiled, thanked me for the interesting story and said that he also did not notice how time passed.
   Upon concluding the meeting, His Majesty asked about my plans. "I hope I soon be able to command a regiment, Your Majesty, because at the time of my absence, I was dismissed from the army" - I said. The emperor replied that this problem should not bother me. Like, for commanding the regiment, I still have time, but the opportunity to fulfill such a task, that got me, falls not for everyone. Later I understood that His Majesty was right"

Meeting in 1917 (maybe last)
   "Upon arriving in Bessarabia at the end of January 1917, I requested a brief visit to Finland, and received a permit. In mid-February I was in Petrograd and heard that the emperor was at Tsarskoe Selo. Since I was a member of His Majesty's suite, and previously commanded the Guards Uhlans, I could expect that the His Majesty will accept me. On that day, the reception was appointed only for two people, and I very quickly had an audience with the Emperor. In the custom of the emperor was listening carefully to everything that was being reported, and I thought he was interested in the message about the situation on the Rumanian front. But, as it seemed to me at that moment his thoughts took a completely different problem." (Of course about Revolution)
(http://img380.imageshack.us/img380/5827/98258803.jpg) (http://img380.imageshack.us/i/98258803.jpg/)(http://img380.imageshack.us/img380/98258803.jpg/1/w300.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img380/98258803.jpg/1/)
(http://img39.imageshack.us/img39/8902/32433616.gif) (http://img39.imageshack.us/i/32433616.gif/)(http://img39.imageshack.us/img39/32433616.gif/1/w343.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img39/32433616.gif/1/)
(http://img210.imageshack.us/img210/904/42749761.gif) (http://img210.imageshack.us/i/42749761.gif/)(http://img210.imageshack.us/img210/42749761.gif/1/w180.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img210/42749761.gif/1/)
 
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on October 17, 2009, 02:15:03 PM
Thank you very much!, it is very helpful to me, it's exactly what I was looking for.

Also, you have mentioned another interesting chapter of Mannerheim's life that I'd like to know more: the adventurous expedition in China, it surely was an epic journey, as well as the Arctic expedition.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on October 18, 2009, 04:39:34 AM
Exhibition dedicated to Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim of the Hermitage Museum: http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/04/2005/hm4_1_96.html
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Zenit21 on October 18, 2009, 07:20:10 AM
If are you interested I can tell a story about Mannerheim's victory over the Bolsheviks in the Finnish Civil War.
     I tell it in general terms.
There was a famous writer in the USSR Viktor Astafyev, by the way a good writer, tried to wrote the truth about the war. He fought in World War II and later wrote about the war. He once traveled, many years after the war to Finland for the meeting with finnish  veterans and talked there with one of them. And so, between the case asked him: "Why Finland have such a good roads ? Such a high quality of life ? High level of civil liberties? Why Finland is democratic country ?", and etc. (Unlike the Soviet Union where government fought only against American imperialism, while people at that time had nothing to eat). And finnish veteran replied him with reasonable answer - "Maybe because we had the White Army Victory in the Finnish Civil War ?":) (Headed by Mannerheim)
    No comments:)

About expedition
Yes it was a very interesting expedition.
The expedition lasted from 29 March 1906 until 21 December 1908.
The main task of the expedition was the intelligence activities and ground mapping.
Key dates:
    June 19 Mannerheim with a huge luggage, camera "Kodak"
    departing from the capital.
    July 29, 1906 in Tashkent expedition got under way.
    In May, Mannerheim met with the Dalai Lama XIII in Utayshan.
    12 July 1908 the expedition arrived in Beijing.
    Before leaving to Russia, Mannerheim made a trip to Japan.  Where he found the military capabilities of the port of  Shimonoseki.
    Then Mannerheim arrived in Vladivostok.
    And after he completed the mission he arrived in St. Petersburg, where he made a report to the Russian Geographical Society, and then to the Emperor.
    Some results of the expedition:
The map shows 3087 km of track.
Plans for 20 Chinese garrison towns.
Described the city of Lanzhou as a possible future Russia's military base in China.
Evaluated the troops, industry and mining in China.
Rated construction of railways in China.
Collected 1200 different interesting items related to Chinese culture.
Brought about 2000 ancient Chinese manuscripts.
Brought a rare collection of Chinese drawings from Lanzhou.
Done phonetic dictionary languages of nationalities living in northern China.
Brought 1353 photograph.
Mannerheim rode on horseback about 14 000 km.
The results of the expedition are still tremendous value for the entire geographical society.

RomanovsFan4Ever , do not be offended:)
but Mannerheim was never been in the Arctic expedition.
Although, if we would based on his life, he could go to anywhere,
even to Arctic, even to Antarctic:)
(http://img34.imageshack.us/img34/7008/89821720.jpg) (http://img34.imageshack.us/i/89821720.jpg/)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on October 18, 2009, 07:35:40 AM
RomanovsFan4Ever , do not be offended:)
but Mannerheim was never been in the Arctic expedition.
Although, if we would based on his life, he could go to anywhere,
even to Arctic, even to Antarctic:)

Hahah, you are totally right :-) , I think that I confused him with another, or maybe I thought that I read something about an "Arctic expedition" but actually it was a fake remembrance, thank you for the correction.

I'm amazed by the big and detailed quantity of informations that you have about him, I'm sure that I will learn a lot in this topic!  ;)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Zenit21 on October 19, 2009, 06:19:23 AM
List of his main decorations and it's photos.

Russian decorations:

Order of St. Anna, 2nd degree (1906)
(http://img196.imageshack.us/img196/8861/stanna.jpg) (http://img196.imageshack.us/i/stanna.jpg/) (http://img196.imageshack.us/img196/stanna.jpg/1/w526.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img196/stanna.jpg/1/)
Order of St. Stanislaus, 2nd class (1906)
(http://img41.imageshack.us/img41/9282/ststanislav.jpg) (http://img41.imageshack.us/i/ststanislav.jpg/) (http://img41.imageshack.us/img41/ststanislav.jpg/1/w562.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img41/ststanislav.jpg/1/)
Order of St. Vladimir, 4th degree (1906)
(http://img196.imageshack.us/img196/6849/stvladimir.jpg) (http://img196.imageshack.us/i/stvladimir.jpg/) (http://img196.imageshack.us/img196/stvladimir.jpg/1/w500.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img196/stvladimir.jpg/1/)
Order of St. George, Knight 4th class (1914)
(http://img87.imageshack.us/img87/7762/stgeorge.jpg) (http://img87.imageshack.us/i/stgeorge.jpg/) (http://img87.imageshack.us/img87/stgeorge.jpg/1/w440.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img87/stgeorge.jpg/1/)
      
      French decorations (only main):

Legion of Honor Grand Cross (Highest possible degree) (1939)
(http://img8.imageshack.us/img8/9798/legionofhonor.jpg) (http://img8.imageshack.us/i/legionofhonor.jpg/) (http://img8.imageshack.us/img8/legionofhonor.jpg/1/w500.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img8/legionofhonor.jpg/1/)
      
      British decorations (only main):

Order of British Empire Knight Grand Cross (Highest possible degree) (1938)
(http://img8.imageshack.us/img8/3455/orderofbritishempire.jpg) (http://img8.imageshack.us/i/orderofbritishempire.jpg/) (http://img8.imageshack.us/img8/orderofbritishempire.jpg/1/w426.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img8/orderofbritishempire.jpg/1/)
    
      German decorations (only main):

Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (1944)
(http://img198.imageshack.us/img198/9775/ironcrossl.jpg) (http://img198.imageshack.us/i/ironcrossl.jpg/) (http://img198.imageshack.us/img198/ironcrossl.jpg/1/w300.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img198/ironcrossl.jpg/1/)
      
      Finnsish decorations (only main):

Mannerheim Cross Knight 1st and 2nd class (1941)
(http://img41.imageshack.us/img41/8083/mannerheimcross.jpg) (http://img41.imageshack.us/i/mannerheimcross.jpg/) (http://img41.imageshack.us/img41/mannerheimcross.jpg/1/w187.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img41/mannerheimcross.jpg/1/)


Note.
All photos are from Wikipedia, www.ww2awards.com and photo of St.George order are from site http://award.armor.kiev.ua/georg/index.html. Thanks to all this sites.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on October 19, 2009, 08:30:45 AM
www.ww2awards.com

Great website!, I'm never visited it before, thank you for the link.

The list of all his main decorations from the time spent in the Russian army to the time of his military career in Finland, shows very well the great importance of Mannerheim in the history, and I still wonder why he don't have much consideration through books of history (at least out of Finland and Russia).
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on October 20, 2009, 06:45:24 AM
I found a documentary about Mannerheim, Mannerheim - General of the Czar, Marshal of Finland", it's a Finnish documentary with English subtitles, this is the link for the first video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYYJlyoR2IY

You can find all the other parts there...

Zenit21, maybe you have already seen it, but I'd like to know what do you think about it, it seems a very reliable source to me...
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Zenit21 on October 20, 2009, 06:29:33 PM
RomanovsFan4Ever, of course I've seen it. Well done documentary. But I think it focused mainly on his Finnish carrier. For me Mannerheim is interesting mainly for his Russian period.
Anyway, it's very good documentary for the first time.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on November 07, 2009, 02:09:08 PM
Chief of the 12th Cavalry Division, Major General Mannerheim. Fourth from left(black hat). 1915.
(http://rgakfd.altsoft.spb.ru/getImage.do?object=1807946575&original=1)
http://rgakfd.altsoft.spb.ru/getImage.do?object=1807946575&original=1 (http://rgakfd.altsoft.spb.ru/getImage.do?object=1807946575&original=1)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on November 20, 2009, 08:23:35 PM
I'm apologies to Zenit21, but I also are very interested in this person.

Here are main dates and events of his interesting Russian period of life. A lot of private events and a lot of interesting information, but unknown for common people.
Reading all this, allways wonders of how he could become such an a great man.
Hope, that you found it very interesting.

 This is first part, from his Born to 1905(Russian-Japanese War)
 
 4 June 1867. Born in the family of the Swedish aristocrat, Baron Karl Rubert Mannerheim. Place of birth - estate Louhisaari.
 (http://img684.imageshack.us/img684/9820/m11j.jpg) (http://img684.imageshack.us/i/m11j.jpg/) (http://img684.imageshack.us/img684/m11j.jpg/1/w450.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img684/m11j.jpg/1/)
 In 1882-1886 studied at the Finnish Cadet Corps, but was expelled for misbehavior and misconduct. After graduating from a private school in Helsinki, passed the entrance examinations in Helsingfors University (1887).
 In the Russian army was in 1887-1917, began with the rank of cornet and ended with an lieutenant general.
 1887-1889 - Nikolayev's Cavalry School.
(http://img109.imageshack.us/img109/2278/m12.png) (http://img109.imageshack.us/i/m12.png/) (http://img109.imageshack.us/img109/m12.png/1/w391.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img109/m12.png/1/)
 1889-1890 - served in the 15-Th Alexandria cavalry regiment, in Kalisz (Poland). Cavalry Regiment
 1891 - January 20, entered the service in the Cavalry Regiment, which maintained strict discipline. Mannerheim lived on a salary, a very meager.
 1892 - May 2, married Anastasia Arapova, daughter of Horse Guards, General Nikola Arapov, with a rich dowry. Now Gustav Turns thoroughbred horses, which are beginning to take the prizes at the races and competitions, often acts as a rider himself.
 1893 - April 23, a daughter Anastasia born.
 1894 - July, died in childbirth newborn son. Strongly experiencing this event.
 1895 - March 24, Gustav acquainted with the 40-year-old Countess Elizabeth Shuvalova, with whom had later a novel.
July 1, Lieutenant Mannerheim received the first in his life of a Foreign Order - cavalry cross the Austrian Order of Franz Josef.
July 7, a daughter Sophia born.
 1896 - 14 May, participated in the coronation of Nicholas II as a junior assistant. On May 16 the Kremlin Palace hosted a reception for the officers of the regiment, where      Mannerheim had a long conversation with the Emperor.
 (http://img40.imageshack.us/img40/2862/m13ou.jpg) (http://img40.imageshack.us/i/m13ou.jpg/) (http://img40.imageshack.us/img40/m13ou.jpg/1/w447.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img40/m13ou.jpg/1/)
 1897 - September 14, an imperial decree Gustav moved in the Court of Konyushennaya leaving lists Cavalry Regiment, with a salary of 300 rubles, and two state apartments: in the capital and in Tsarskoe Selo.
 1898 - from March 27 to April 10, Mannerheim was a member of the panel of judges Michael's arena, and then went on a long trip on horseback plants - complete with stables, horses were his main concern. In early June, Mannerheim meets Brusilov. In November, had  a trip to Berlin, during the inspection of horses three-year old mare crushed Gustav patella.
 1899 - in mid-January finally started to get out of bed and walk with crutches.
June 22, Mannerheim went along with the Countess Shuvalova treat a knee on mud resort Gapsal, where he received an order of rank the staff-captain.
August 12, staff-captain already in the capital with the affairs of a wide range: from a complete set of horses Konyushennaya to sell manure for the estate EIV Vasilchikova maid of honor.
 1900 - January, spent much time at the range, where testing of new carriages for the royal family.
April 12, Gustav receives first Russian order - the Order of St. Anne 3rd degree. On May 24 head of the office Konyushennaya part, which worked, for the most part, wives of officers of the same Konyushennaya part. The whole year has passed in the family scandals as Gustav continued an affair with the Countess Shuvalova, and with the actress Vera Mikhailovna.
 1901 - In early February Mannerheim abroad. Upon his return a lot of work, putting things in order in the pension stables, a horse hospital. Often visited the racetrack, not forgetting to visit and cereal other places.
In summer the couple Mannerheims acquires an estate in Courland and in early August the whole family go to Aprikken. There, located in the ancient house of Gustav continued his affairs. Wife in response enrolled in nursing and the community of St. George in early September, leaving the Far East.
In October, the Mannerheim elect a 80-m an active member of the Imperial Society trotting races on Semenovsky Square and a member of the judging committee.
 1902 - The wife returned to St. Petersburg.
In mid-March Brusilov agrees with the transition of Mannerheim to his cavalry officer's school. In May Gustav acquainted with ballet star Tamara Karsavina, with whom Mannerheim later have maintained friendly relations. Another holiday Mannerheim held separately from the family in Finland.
December 20 he was given the rank of Captain.
 1903 - His spouse sells the property, the money transferred to the Paris banks, says goodbye to fellow, and, taking their daughters and documents on Aprikken, left for France on the Cote d'Azur.
Baron is one on one with an officer's salary and with gambling debts.
 1904 - January 15, Gustav celebrated New Year at the Winter Palace, with the Emperor at the ball.
January 27, Mannerheim presented at the ceremony of the official announcement of Nicholas II and the war with Japan. As part of the guard he did not go to the war, Mannerheim went on to serve in the capital.
 Mannerheim suddenly decided to go to the war.
Saturday night October 9, 1904, Lieutenant Colonel of 52-Th Regiment Dragoons Nezhinsky Baron Mannerheim on express train went to Manchuria.....

To be continued ...


*some info are taken from Wikipedia.


Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on November 21, 2009, 10:48:30 AM
Excellent chronology, thank you!, can't wait to read to second part, and also thank you for keeping this topic alive, sadly I have noticed just now that Zenit21 has left the forum, a pity. :- (

(http://inlinethumb09.webshots.com/31176/2296388980101857556S600x600Q85.jpg) (http://good-times.webshots.com/photo/2296388980101857556hZgYUd)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on November 21, 2009, 02:54:30 PM
Thank's for the compliment RomanovsFan4Ever. Glad that you liked it.

Part two. Detailed chronology and interesting information. Both service and personal.
From Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905, Expedition in China 1906-1908,
Military service in Poland 1909-1914, until the First World War.

(http://i077.radikal.ru/0911/90/a12c772df6b0.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
 Mannerheim is far left. Waiting for a departure to the War(1904)  
 
Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905.
 1904 - October 24, Mannerheim arrived in Harbin. Gave to Vladivostok, to Countess Shuvalova, a telegram and went there himself. Returned in Harbin on November 3. Due to organizational problems colonel had a long sit in reserve.
 1905 - January 8, Colonel Mannerheim appointed as a deputy commander of the regiment for drill part.
 1904 - December 25 to 1905 - January 8, as a commander of two separate squads took part in a cavalry operations conducted by the General Mishchenko with 77 squadrons. The aim of the operation was to break on the coast, to capture the Japanese port of Yingkou in ships and blowing up a bridge, cut the rail link between Port Arthur and Mukden. The attack on Yingkou led to the defeat of the Russian army. Division of Mannerheim did not participate in attack on Yingkou.
 February 23, received order from headquarters to conduct the operation in the eastern Impeni and to rescue the 3rd Infantry Division, fell into the trap. Dragoons, under cover of fog went into the rear of the Japanese and after a swift attack, put them to flight. For his leadership and personal courage Baron received a rank of colonel and was added to his salary 200 rubles.
Headquarters of 3rd Manchurian Army ordered Mannerheim to explore Mongolian territory, to identify where the Japanese troops. Operation was performed excellently. The army headquarters was very pleased with the work of Mannerheim. This was the last operation of Mannerheim in the Russian-Japanese War.
September 5, in Portsmouth Sergei Witte signed a peace treaty with Japan.
 In November, colonel went to St. Petersburg and learned that his position is excluded from the state of 52-Th Nezhinsky Dragoon Regiment. As a war veteran, he on the other way seen the high society of the capital.
Family life was also on the brink of disaster.
Apparently at this point, Colonel Mannerheim radically revised his views, and changed himself from the hero-lover Guardsman into serious Russian army officer.
 1906 - in early January, was at home for two months and treating his rheumatism.
 
 1906-1908. Expedition to China.
((Since that this expedition has already been studied before in detail on this topic, I decided to miss it.))
  
(http://img22.imageshack.us/img22/2539/64714905.jpg) (http://img22.imageshack.us/i/64714905.jpg/) (http://img22.imageshack.us/img22/64714905.jpg/1/w500.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img22/64714905.jpg/1/)
 During Poland service with friend general Brusilov.

Service in Poland 1909-1914.
 1909 - January 10, returned to St. Petersburg, where he was appointed as a commander of the 13-Th Vladimir Lancers His Imperial Highness of the Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich Regiment.
Mannerheim brilliantly executed full training regiment. Then spend a weekend in Warsaw, in the family of Lubomirski. Also met several times with his friend and colleague Brusilov, who commanded the 14-Th Army Corps. Brusilov praised for Gustav to the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich. After the conversation with the Emperor Baron Mannerheim was appointed as a Commander of the Guards of His Majesty's Ulan regiment and was promoted to Major General of His Majesty's entourage. It was a very honorable appointment
 1911 - February 17, Baron took regiment. The barracks of the regiment were located in Warsaw in the old park Lazienki, in the triangle of streets Chernyakovskaya - Hussar - Agricola partite. It was a great regiment. Private Life of officers until the arrival of the Mannerheim was not very diverse. But Mannerheim abruptly changed the situation and organized equestrian sport. Major-General was adopted in families of Radziwill, Zamoyski, Wielopolski, Potocki. Poles, famous for their beauty, were harassing the officers of the regiment, and Gustav was not an exception. Rumors about visits of fashionable ladies to the street Cherniakhovsky, 35 (flat of Mannerheim), quickly spread through the city. Mannerheim periodically visited the racetrack.
 1912 - full year in command of the regiment. His regiment was the only one which did not received any penalty points during the summer maneuvers near Ivangorod. Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich called Gustav as an excellent commander. Lancers guarded royal hunting area near Spala - one of the summer residences of the imperial family. Apparently, there Mannerheim also met with Nicholas II.
 1913 - autumn, Mannerheim more than a month spent in France, took place in a Russian-French exercises.
December 24, Gustaf Karlovic Mannerheim, Major-General of His Majesty's entourage, appointed as a commander of the Separate Guards Cavalry Brigade, with headquarters in Warsaw.
 1914 - first half of the summer Mannerheim rested in the resort in Wiesbaden.
July 22, met with the Countess Lubomirska and told her about his expects of the probably war.
About this meeting, the countess Lyubomirskaya left "very interesting note":
"On the morning of July 31, 1914, Gustav came to me to say goodbye ... He asked me to "give him a good tone" on his road ..."


To be continued ....


*photos and some info are taken from www.mannerheim.fi and wikipedia.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on November 22, 2009, 02:26:16 PM
Part three.
Detailed chronology and interesting events. Both personal and military.
Participation in First World War 1914-1917 *(I focus mainly on Mannerheim person in this chronology. Many details of the War itself are missed) *.
Until both Russian Revolutions of 1917.


(http://s53.radikal.ru/i141/0911/46/495a7ccd5366.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
During the war with his friend General Brusilov.
 
 1914 - August 1, Germany declared war to Russia.
 August 17, Mannerheim was ordered to retain the city Krasnik, and came to the rescue with the help of reinforcements in the form of two infantry regiments, held his cavalry rushing attack, drawing the enemy to flight. During this battle of Kraśnik Major General Mannerheim was awarded the Golden St. George's Sabre.

(http://i082.radikal.ru/0911/92/d99a11bedc73.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
Golden St. George's Sabre

In august, for the successful operations  Major General Mannerheim was awarded with the Order of St. Stanislaus 1st Class with Swords and gets swords to the existing Order of St. Vladimir the 3rd degree. August 22, Gustav met with the Countess Shuvalova, who was in service in the Red Cross Hospital in Przemysl. Later Mannerheim won the battle for the town of Janow, that 75 km from Lublin, though with heavy losses.
 December 18, was one of the most important day's in Baron's life - he was awarded with the Order of St. George the 4th degree. Later Mannerheim secured ferry troops to the right bank of the river San. To all questions of his officers, why he is invulnerable to bullets and shells, Mannerheim always answered that he has his own amulet - silver medal from 1896, medal that was given to him after coronation of his favourite Emperor Nicholas II.

(http://i077.radikal.ru/0911/91/7e30d311d894.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
Order of St. George 4th degree.

 1915 - June 24, an old friend and colleague of Mannerheim, General Brusilov appointed Gustav Karlovich as a commander of the 12-Th Cavalry Division.
12-Th Cavalry Division consisted of two brigades, each of which had two regiments, one of which was the famous Akhtyrsky Hussars Regiment, founded in 1651, and bearing the name of the familiar of Mannerheim Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna, who worked throughout the whole war simply as an a sister of mercy. Olga and Gustav Karlovic met together very often during the war. Gustav kept a photograph of Olga Alexandrovna, personally signed by the Grand Duchess in the memory of their meetings.
 March 17, Major General was ordered to cross the Dniester Estuary near the village and connect it with the General Count Keller. March 22, part of the Mannerheim division crossed the Dniester and seized the village Schloss and Folvarok, forced to withdraw under heavy enemy counterattacks. When Mannerheim, seen that the enemy forces exceed his powers more than double, turned to Keller for support, but received no assistance.
 March 26 to April 25, the division of Mannerheim was on holiday in the countryside Shuparka. Baron repeatedly demonstrated the highest class in the sport shooting competitions of various types of the small arms. April 25, Mannerheim temporarily appointed as a commander of the consolidated cavalry corps, consisting of 12-Th division and several other divisions. Corps under the command of the Mannerheim took the city Zabolotiv on the Prut River.
 May 18, a small celebration of this event was organized in barracks. Olga Alexandrovna also participated on this celebrations. Everyone remembered the great polonaise dance shown by the main pair of the evening Olga and Gustav. May 20, Baron was ordered to move to the area of Voynilova where he entered the 11-Th Army Corps.
June 28, Gustav was ordered to organize the defense around the village Zazulintse.  In August, major general was sent to treat his rheumatism at the resort of Odessa.
September, returned to the front. Spends several successful operations with his division.
 
(http://i056.radikal.ru/0911/2c/1d17d5162759.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
At the front with the officers.
 
 1916 - June 1, Mannerheim took part in the preparation of destroying enemy fortifications, and 4 June, slightly earlier than was scheduled, the troops went on the offensive. However, it soon became clear that the army was still too late with their plans. Mannerheim, at that time, had serious tensions with General Denikin. Because of the contradictions in the Army overall situation at the front became deteriorated.
 July, Baron made some rearrangements, then launched an offensive under Lutsk, but at the end of the month the entire front under the command of General Brussilov with Mannerheim went on the offensive. The fighting continued until August 12.  In August, Romania switched to the side of Entente. Gustav took this event with skepticism. In autumn, his division was transferred to Romania. For the whole  transition division did not lose a single horse.
 January, Baron for a few days went to Finland.
When he returned to Petrograd, he felt very tense atmosphere in the air.
The atmosphere of the future Revolution.


To be continued.....



*All photos are taken from www.mannerheim.fi
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on November 23, 2009, 02:52:45 PM
Part four. Detailed chronology and interesting events.
Mannerheim in the heat of February and October Revolutions, 1917.
Saying goodbye to Saint-Petersburg and Russia in December (February), 1917 (1918).

 Mannerheim in the heat of the February Revolution
 
 (http://s61.radikal.ru/i171/0911/ce/54f2eb2109d5.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
 Crowd during February Revolution
  
 1917 - January, Mannerheim had a long conversation with the Emperor at Tsarskoe Selo.  Nicholas II was very depressed. The situation in the city, itself was very disturbing. Economic was collapsing and chaos on transport were on the face. Money in circulation was becoming less and less. Unfortunately, but all last weeks were fulled with the terrible frosts.
 February 25, Baron visited Finland, the situation in Petrograd was already critical. But in Helsinki the situation was calm. March 9, Gustav Karlovic arrived from Helsinki, from newspaper baron read that clashes took place in Petrograd. Crowds of people, driven to despair, robbed in large cities many shops. The streets covered with demonstrations with the red flags.
 March 11, Mannerheim, visited the Imperial Opera House. In the city was covered with endless rebellions. Baron met with a friend Emmanuel Nobel, with whom both participated in a nasty story, they happily escaped from the demonstrators. Meanwhile, the revolt took a critical turn, some military units have already defected to the rebels, the prison beasts are taken by storm, and thousands of prisoners were released. Serious attacks on police stations also started. Many government agencies also were on fire.
 March 13, Mannerheim was again in the balance of unintended consequences. He as a general, was nearly been arrested in his apartment. March 15, Mannerheim arrived in Moscow, where he learned that the emperor abdicated in favor of his brother - the Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich. This event is a little bit pleased Mannerheim, but on March 17 the Grand Duke also abdicated.
 May, returned to the army and was ordered to take the defense in the Transylvanian Alps to the west of the city Suceava. In mid-June, was promoted to lieutenant general and was appointed as a commander of the 6-Th Cavalry army corps, which consisted of three divisions. Meanwhile, throughout the summer situation in the army become also disastrous.
 During this period, Mannerheim decided to left Russia's army.
 August, due to the acute rheumatic fever Mannerheim was sent for treatment to Odessa for a period of five weeks. In September he was transferred to the reserve as an a commander, unfit for military service.


 Mannerheim in a heat of October Revolution and saying goodbuy to Russia.
 
 (http://s53.radikal.ru/i140/0911/47/a68f4c744f14.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)  
 Shot from the movie when soldiers are storming the Winter Palace
 
 1917 - November 8, Kerensky and his government was overthrown. Mannerheim was very upset with this event. The fighting took place in the capital for two days, after which Lenin and Trotsky, stood at the head of the Bolshevik government and seized power. In Odessa  this event was received calmly.
 November, Baron arrived at Headquarters in Mogilev. At the station Mogilev Mannerheim discovered the crowd of terrified people, and in the middle was a large bloodstain. There was a killed supreme commander, Lieutenant General Dukhonin. Then Mannerheim reached Petrograd, stayed there for a week and met with his many old friends. They were all very depressed. All of them was covered with fear and nobody felt the desire to fight against the new regime.
 December 6, Finland declared an independence from Russia, and Mannerheim decided resigned from Russia's army. From army, which he gave thirty years of his life. Immediately he went to the Finland Railway Station in St. Petersburg. And in a gloomy and rainy weather, went to Helsinki. In Finland Mannerheim tried to found out military forces, including also from France, to help Russia, but failed.
 December, returned to Petrograd, where there was no hint of resistance. Then again went to Helsinki. Then again returned in Petrograd, and finally,
 1918 - January, forever left his beloved city and his country. Leaving behind a whole life long of exciting thirty years.
 
 (http://s12.radikal.ru/i185/0911/1f/c2b965d195f8.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
 Frustrated and devastated General at Finnish coast (1918)







*All photos are taken from www.mannerheim.fi
Some info are taken from Mannerheim memoirs.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on November 24, 2009, 10:36:22 AM
And finally,
Some words about Mannerheim family and also about some people that were mentioned earlier in this chronology and played a big role in his life.
And my personal opinion about him.
(I do not claim to absolute objectivity and completeness of my opinion, This is just my personal, subjective evaluation)

(http://img692.imageshack.us/img692/9021/69198036.jpg) (http://img692.imageshack.us/i/69198036.jpg/) (http://img692.imageshack.us/img692/69198036.jpg/1/w300.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img692/69198036.jpg/1/)
Wife Anastasia Arapova

His family.
 1892 - May, Mannerheim married,
 Baroness Anastasia Nikolaevna Arapova(Mannerheim) (1872–1936)
A daughter of a wealthy Russian general and former Chevalier Guards officer, Nikolai Arapov, and his wife, Vera Kazakova. Anastasia was Orthodox, Gustaf was Lutheran. Even of the fact that Empress Maria Feodorovna, was greatly in favor of the marriage between Gustaf and Anastasia, the couple's life was not happy. The couple had two daughters, Anastasie, Sophie and a son who died at birth. Mannerheim and his wife separated unofficially in 1903. Then Anastasia went with her daughters to France. In 1919 Mannerheim obtained a formal divorce in the Tornio court.
 
(http://img691.imageshack.us/img691/8702/77310818.jpg) (http://img691.imageshack.us/i/77310818.jpg/) (http://img691.imageshack.us/img691/77310818.jpg/1/w300.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img691/77310818.jpg/1/)
Daughters Anastasie and Sophie

 In 1936, Mannerheim met Anastasia, now with failing health, in France and they forgave each other. After Anastasia death, which occurred in the same year, Mannerheim, although been a Lutheran, prayed for her in Orthodox church.  Elder daughter of Mannerheim, Anastasie, became a Carmelite nun in England. Younger, Sophie, lived in France, visited her father in Finland and act as his hostess during his term as Regent of Finland. Anastasie died in 1978. Sophie died in 1963.

 Empress Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark) (1847–1928).
Women, who played a very big role in Mannerheim's life. Mannerheim served in Her Majesty Maria Feodorovna's Chevalier Guards from 1891 till 1904. Empress Maria Feodorovna repeatedly helped Mannerheim in his carrier. They always talked with each other in Swedish. Later, when Empress was in exile, grateful former Russian general visited Her Majesty.

(http://img691.imageshack.us/img691/3673/81304066.jpg) (http://img691.imageshack.us/i/81304066.jpg/) (http://img691.imageshack.us/img691/81304066.jpg/1/w250.png) (http://g.imageshack.us/img691/81304066.jpg/1/)
General Brusilov
 
General Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (1853–1926)
 General of Cavalry(1912) (full General)
 Commander of the Southwestern Front(1916)
 Order of St. George 3rd degree
One of the best commanders of WWI, noted for the development of new offensive tactics used in the 1916 offensive which would come to bear his name. The innovative tactics were used later by the Germans. Helped Baron Mannerheim, as an older friend and higher rank general throughout all his war military carrier from 1898 till 1917. Always praised about him to GD Nikolai Nikolaevich and Nicholas II. Although Brusilov later defected to the Red Army (1920), Mannerheim always remembered about him with greatest respect.

 Also Mannerheim had affairs with Countess Elizabeth Baryatinsky (Shuvalova) (1855 - 1938), countess Lyubomirskaya and other grand ladies, befriended with GD Olga Alexandrovna, Emmanuel Nobel, and was adopted with the most elite circles of the Russian Empire. Was familiar with many Grand Dukes, Duchesses, Countesses, Generals, governors and other endless court people.
 
 
 And my opinion.
 World history had a small number of people, people who strongly influenced the course of the world, had enormous respect and influence at all, from simple servants to kings and tyrants, including Hitler, and thus never used their popularity. You will not find many books about them, or, even if you'll find one, you'll see there only superficial and terse look on their lives. One of these was Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim. Simple Finnish born Swede from a small principality in the Northwest of the Russian Empire. But he will be remembered, not by his birth certificate, by some other unique qualities.
 - The only white general, including Kolchak, Denikin and others, who managed to win the Civil war, though with a big losses, and proclaim Finland as a Republic, which is a remarkable achievement, and requires a lot of research, not only by Finnish and Russian scientists.
 - Lover of a different bad entertainments, women and gambling in youth, and then, one of the greatest military leaders of the 20th century, with more then hundred of military decorations.
 - The monarchist by nature and handsome aristocrat, a man of 19th century - and then a fighter for an independence of Finland, winner of the Finnish Civil War, and the man who gave the Finnish main - independence, pride, and awareness of their national membership. The most important quality for any nation in the world.
 - Man from the Russian Empire, who fought for it in all possible wars, a lover of Russian cuisine and totally Russian in his basic views, knew Russian as his native and even better than Finnish, the conqueror of the hearts of many Russian grand ladies, and at the same time, person, though reluctantly, but fought against the Soviet Union.
 And we can only regret that Mannerheim, who offered Kolchak 100000 soldiers in assist for the Russian Civil War and until the end remained faithful to Russian Empire was not able to stay in Russia, and to help his first, beloved country(the first love is always not forgotten), to win Russian Civil War, then carry out with new government liberal reforms, proclaim a republic, and finally help this country to become a normal civilized European member.
 Mannerheim, apparently decided otherwise. He thought that it is better to have a bird in the hand than an eagle in the sky. Baron choice a small and underdeveloped, at that time (1918) Finland. Now, Finland has a highest standard of living, civil and political liberties, powerful economics, smooth roads, the huge life expectancy. Now we shouldn't worry about this country. His mission is over.
But why he choose Finland? Or, for example, not Sweden? Or even stayed in Russia?
Another one of his controversial decisions. But this is Mannerheim!
In this he is unique!




All photos are taken from www.mannerheim.fi
Some info are taken from Mannerheim memoiars and wikipedia.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Naslednik Norvezhskiy on November 27, 2009, 07:16:10 PM
Very interesting posts! For a Scandinavian (Norwegian) like me, Marshall Mannerheim is a fascinating link between Scandinavia and Imperial Russia.

Allow me to be a bit pedantic just because it' so fun to discuss noble titles - and especially those in the Grand Duchy of Finland:
4 June 1867. Born in the family of the Swedish aristocrat, Baron Karl Rubert Mannerheim. Place of birth - estate Louhisaari.
His father was actually a count, being the only male-line grandson of Baron Carl Erik Mannerheim, who was made a (Finnish) count by the Emperor-Grand Duke Alexander I in 1824. Gustaf Mannerheim was the second son, so he only inherited the older, Swedish baronial title. Unlike the Russian comital titles, Scandinavian (Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian) comital titles were sometimes, but far from always, passed on by primogeniture and younger agnates sported baronial titles (but with the original name/designation), either as a courtesy title or, as in Mannerheim's case, as substantive titles. It's somewhat like the "declension of titles" introduced in France during the Restoration.

Baron Gustaf Mannerheim's ancestral arms:

(http://www.roskildehistorie.dk/stamtavler/adel/svenske/Mannerheim/Mannerheim-filer/image004.gif)


Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on November 27, 2009, 07:56:05 PM
Very interesting posts! For a Scandinavian (Norwegian) like me, Marshall Mannerheim is a fascinating link between Scandinavia and Imperial Russia.

Allow me to be a bit pedantic just because it' so fun to discuss noble titles - and especially those in the Grand Duchy of Finland:
4 June 1867. Born in the family of the Swedish aristocrat, Baron Karl Rubert Mannerheim. Place of birth - estate Louhisaari.
His father was actually a count, being the only male-line grandson of Baron Carl Erik Mannerheim, who was made a (Finnish) count by the Emperor-Grand Duke Alexander I in 1824. Gustaf Mannerheim was the second son, so he only inherited the older, Swedish baronial title. Unlike the Russian comital titles, Scandinavian (Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian) comital titles were sometimes, but far from always, passed on by primogeniture and younger agnates sported baronial titles (but with the original name/designation), either as a courtesy title or, as in Mannerheim's case, as substantive titles. It's somewhat like the "declension of titles" introduced in France during the Restoration.

Welcome to the topic about this great man!
As we are at the Imperial Russia forum, we are trying to talk here mainly about his Russian life.
Now we are already three: me myself, researcher of his Russian life,
RomanvsFan4ever, interested as I know in his Finnish period and read a book about it,
and you, interested in his genealogy and roots.
Welcome again.

Thank you for the information. Of course I, as a researcher of Mannerheim (mainly of his Russian life) knew about his Swedish ancestors, that they also worked and lived in Russia. But!!, By the way, as I understood you clearly(I do not understand anything in this titles, etc), he was not really a Baron!?
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Naslednik Norvezhskiy on November 27, 2009, 08:14:13 PM
Thank you for the information. Of course I, as a researcher of Mannerheim (mainly of his Russian life) knew about his Swedish ancestors, that they also worked and lived in Russia. But!!, By the way, as I understood you clearly(I do not understand anything in this titles, etc), he was not really a Baron!?
Sorry for writing a bit cryptic. Mannerheim was a baron (and his daughters baronesses), while his father and elder brother were counts. There was already a baronial title in the family before Alexander I made the head of the family counts. I just meant that in some other Scandinavian comital families younger sons just had baronial titles as courtesy titles.

the Empress Maria Feodorovna was inspired of him (frendship). She helped him in his career
Another reason why I consider Empress Maria Feodorovna as a very intelligent and farsighted person.
Unless she had many protegées that turned out to be unworthy, I must say that is an excellent point about her skills as a judge of people.
And of course I love that he spoke Swedish while she spoke Danish. Cеверная империя....
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on November 28, 2009, 04:06:02 PM
Although some of Mannerheim's Military decorations were already posted on this topic,
I decided to make a detailed and complete list of all Mannerheim military decorations during his Russian Military service until the September of 1917.
All information are accompanied with photos.
Both Russian and foreign decorations of that period.
Both Military decorations, nonmilitary awards and different other anniversary medals.
(I apologise in advance, cause there is a certain confusion with definition of degrees of a St. Anna and St. Stanislaus Orders, different sources said absolutely opposite information. In this post I'm trying to use only last and accurate information)
Decorations are sorted in order of their Military importance.


    Order of St. George, Knight of 4th degree. (1914)
    (http://i024.radikal.ru/0911/b0/58a00accda09.gif) (http://www.radikal.ru)
    
    St. George Gold Sabre, with diamonds, Knight of 1st degree. (1914)
    (http://i057.radikal.ru/0911/cf/8c0879e4075f.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
    
    Order of St. Anna, Knight of 2nd degree and 1st degree with swords. (from 1906 to 1917)
    (http://i041.radikal.ru/0911/4a/f9ac4970fca3.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
    
    Order of St. Stanislaus, Knight of 2nd and 1st degrees, both with swords. (from 1905 to 1917)
    (http://i078.radikal.ru/0911/71/46d1e8a957bb.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
    
    Order of St. Vladimir, Knight of 3th and 2nd degrees, both with swords. (from 1906 to 1917)
    (http://s51.radikal.ru/i133/0911/d5/d0fd39683ef9.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
 
Foreign Orders.
    
    Order of Franz Josef, Officer. (1895) Austro-Hungarian Empire.
    Order of Maurice and Lazarus, Cavalier Cross. (1902) Greece.
    Order of Saviour, Knight's Cross. (1902) Greece.
    (http://i042.radikal.ru/0911/72/14a1902c7210.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)

Bracket with different decorations.
From left to right:

   Order of St. Vladimir, Knight 4th degree with swords.
   Alexander III's, reign medal. (1896)
   Nicholas II's, coronation medal. (1896)
   Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905, medal. (1905)
   "Battle of Poltava 200 years", anniversary medal. (1909)
   "1812 Patriotic War 100 years", anniversary medal. (1912)
   "300 years of Romanov dynasty", anniversary medal. (1913)
   Legion of Honour (Legion d'honneur), Officer (1912) France.
   (http://s48.radikal.ru/i119/0911/13/3b637be3bfba.gif) (http://www.radikal.ru)  

Compilation of other minor regimental and service decorations.
From left to right:

  His Majesty's Nicholas II Life Guards Ulan Regiment, mark. (1911)
  13th Vladimir Ulan Regiment, 200 anniversary mark. (1912)
  Nicholas Cavalry School, mark. (1909)
  1st prize to the excellent rider, gold, produced by C. Faberge. (1911)?
  2nd prize to the excellent rider, produced by C. Faberge. (1909)?
  "300 years of Romanov dynasty", honory mark. (1913)
  (http://s50.radikal.ru/i128/0911/12/44e32a1882d2.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)




*All photos are slightly modified and taken from www.mannerheim.fi and from http://medalirus.narod.ru/,
and are all exclusively property of their respective owners. I don't pretend on any rights.
Some information are taken from www.Mannerheim.fi


      
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on December 09, 2009, 10:35:24 AM
Another photo of Mannerheim (dating to the Imperial Russia time?)...unfortunately not in a perfect quality.

(http://inlinethumb26.webshots.com/11097/2078469960101857556S600x600Q85.jpg) (http://good-times.webshots.com/photo/2078469960101857556zwAJDf)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on December 09, 2009, 12:33:24 PM
RomanovsFan4Ever, very interesting photo. I have never seen it before.
Moreover it looks like a kind of private photo. I mean not official. Where did you find it?

About time, when this photo was taken.
Sadly, but it's not Russian period of Mannerheim.  On the photo Mannerheim is in a Finnish Military uniform (of that time).
I cannot exactly name a year. But I think that photo was taken just after his Russian service. From 1918 to
any other year until the Second World War.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on December 09, 2009, 01:38:34 PM
Thank you very much for the answer.
Unfortunately, I found that photo months ago, and now I don't remember exactly in which web site I found it, however I remember that it wasn't completely dedicated to Mannerheim.

I had the suspect that maybe it wasn't from the Imperial Russia time judging by the type of uniform (although I have to admit that I consider my knowledge of historical military uniforms modest, but I want to learn more), so I preferred to ask.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on December 13, 2009, 07:29:15 PM
Mannerheim and his life in Saint Petersburg.
Mannerheim's places of the former Russian capital Saint Petersburg, and his life before the Russian-Japanese war is mostly undiscovered even today. However, Mannerheim almost all that time, from 1887 to 1904, lived permanently in majestic Saint Petersburg. This city was also the favorite city of Gustaf. Unfortunately, today, this Great city has lost all its political and cultural status and leaves a very sad impression. Nevertheless,
Here is a brief St. Petersburg part of a Mannerheim's life, 1887-1904.  In addition, housing troubles of the Baron and some personal information.

Mannerheim's arrived in Saint Petersburg, and soon he had become a student of Nicholas's Cavalry school.  
 From 1887 to 1889 - Mannerheim lived in a hostel of the Cavalry School, and during short-term layoffs, not having his own house, lived in a 10-room apartment on Aptekarsky lane, 4, in the apartment of the family of his godmother Baroness Skalon. For all of these two years Mannerheim has studied the saturated life of the capital.
 August, 1889 - Mannerheim became an officer, with the right of service in the Guard. But before graduating, he became involved in a scandal in the train with another guard's officer. Baroness Skalon, meanwhile, has made the transfer of Mannerheim to St. Petersburg in Her Majesty's Maria Feodorovna Cavalry Regiment, which was located on Shpalernaya street, 41. That was a great regiment, the most prestigious Cavalry regiment of the Russian Empire.
 August, 1891 - Gustaf became a permanent member of the regiment, while continuing to live in the house of his godmother. But soon he had become thinking about his own house. After a series of troubles with finding a personal apartment Mannerheim finally moved into his first St. Petersburg house.
 October 30, 1891 - Baron, with his orderly, by the suggestion of his friend Pavel Demidov, moved into a four rooms apartment on Zakharievskaya street, 31.
 May 2, 1892 - Mannerheim married on the Russian noblewoman Anastasia Arapova. Immediately after the wedding a happy couple went to the Uspenskoye - a gorgeous bride's estate near Moscow. There, during their honeymoon, Gustaf and Anastasia met with the famous Russian painter Levitan.
 July, 1892 - Mannerheim and his wife settled in the 12-room apartment with three back rooms on the second floor of the house 29 on the Moika Embankment. Apartment was supplemented with three stables and cartwright. Soon Baron bought six horses in Germany.
 August, 1893 - Unexpectedly, Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky increased the monthly cost of an apartment, and Mannerheim moved to Gagarinskij Embankment, 28, into the 19-room apartment. Pavel Demidov and Prince Volkonskiy, closer friends of Gustaf, also lived there, not far from the Mannerheim. Mannerheim had survived in a very cold winter with his wife and little daughter who were constantly ached.
 July 14, 1894 - Anastasia gave birth to a dead son. The family experienced many serious conflicts.
 November 20, 1894 - Gustaf rented a two-storied mansion for a hundred rubles in a month on Ligovskaya street, 49, just in front of the Moscow railway station. It was a beautiful and spacious mansion, with utility rooms, stables and cartwright. His wife was also very happy with the new place, because as a Muscovite she could easily travel to Moscow in any time. Soon, with the birth of a second child (girl Sophia) family life had experienced new challenges. Gustav decided to find a new housing.
 Summer, 1895 - Lieutenant Mannerheim met with a retired colonel Nikolai Glinka-Mavrin, who offered Gustav 11-room apartment on Millionnaya street, 8. Apartment was equipped with a very rare for those days personal phone. Nicholas Glinka-Mavrin also had provided Baron with two cartwrights and stables for eight horses. That was also a very good place in the heart of Saint Petersburg just near Nevsky prospect and the Palace square.
 May, 1896 - Lieutenant Mannerheim as a member of the Cavalry Regiment took part in the coronation of Nicholas II. This was probably the most important event in his earliest Russian life. From that time Mannerheim had his own and beloved Emperor.
 September, 1898 - being an assistant to a chief of the Court Konyushennaya department, the General Greenwald, Gustav Karlovic Mannerheim got the certificate for the right to stay with his wife and children in an apartment at Konushennaya Square, 1. It was a spacious apartment of seven rooms, utility rooms and with a personal phone. There Baron, for the first time in his life, organized his personal cabinet, with the U.S. secretaire, and later, with a typewriter and photocopier apparat. But, despite the rapid promotion to the Captain degree and a high salary, Mannerheim's life in that apartment was not happy. Firstly, Captain Gustav Karlovic had seriously injured his leg in Berlin, then his wife Anastasia learned about an affair of her husband with the Countess Shuvalova and his meetings with ballerinas, and immediately went with her daughters to France. But these were not all the troubles. Soon, just after wife's departure, on April 1903 his older brother Carl was expelled from Finland (then Finnish principality) to Sweden. After all this unforeseen troubles, Mannerheim dismissed the servants, sold all the furniture, sent some of the things and pictures of Skalon and moved to the one-room apartment on Konyushennaya Square, 2.
 October 9, 1904 - Lieutenant Colonel Gustav Karlovic Mannerheim had left Saint Petersburg and went to the Russian-Japanese War.
 After that Baron had never lived permanently in his beloved St. Petersburg, only occasionally had been visiting the capital of the Russian Empire, stopping only in the most prestigious hotels of that time, mainly in a luxurious Grand Hotel Europe.
 January, 1918 - Lieutenant General Mannerheim had left Saint Petersburg and Russia, forever closed all his "housing troubles". But of course all that time of his life and these minor troubles with the capital's apartments had stayed in his heart forever.

 P.S.
 February, 1942 - WWII, Eastern Front, North direction. Mannerheim is fighting against the Soviet Union on the side of Hitler. German headquarters commanded Mannerheim and the Finnish army to march on Leningrad. Mannerheim's answer had surprised everyone: "I will not attack." Also early, in September of 1941, Mannerheim refused to bomb the Leningrad. As a result of Mannerheim's actions, the Soviet - Finnish front was frozen up to the early Spring of 1944.  And eventually in September of 1944 Finland and USSR signed a peace treaty. No comments....

Modern view of some Mannerheim's houses in Saint Petersburg.

Aptekarsky lane, 4
(http://i008.radikal.ru/0912/3d/1ba2f4852c3c.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
Millionnaya street, 8
(http://s58.radikal.ru/i161/0912/e5/ca26f54b9c07.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
Moika Embankment,29
(http://s45.radikal.ru/i110/0912/c1/c7ae3821064a.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
Zakharievskaya street, 31
(http://i015.radikal.ru/0912/8b/e45d93975b3e.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)

*This article was written using the article of Leonid Vlasov in the "Adresses of Saint Petersburg" magazine (http://www.adresaspb.ru/index.htm). A big thanks in absentia to author. Photos are also taken from that site and all of them are property of their respective owners.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: wox24 on December 20, 2009, 01:15:41 PM
Thanks for informations. I am suprised it. ;)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on December 20, 2009, 02:49:13 PM
Dear Wox24,

You are welcome!
I'm happy that you've found this topic about Mannerheim interesting for you.
And this is good, that you've also found a lot of new information about him.

If you will have any questions about this interesting man in the future, you are always welcome.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: wox24 on December 20, 2009, 03:22:24 PM
Dear Wox24,

You are welcome!
I'm happy that you've found this topic about Mannerheim interesting for you.
And this is good, that you've also found a lot of new information about him.

If you will have any questions about this interesting man in the future, you are always welcome.

I think I will be. ;) You know, when Czechoslovakia was socialitistic we had pro-sovietic history (I visit a school in this time), after 1989 children have pro-West history. And any of them does not show true about Mannerheim. I will offer these materials and maybe I translated them.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on January 11, 2010, 07:47:04 PM
Field Marshal of Finland, Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim. Coloured by Dear AP forum member, Proud Olga.

Although colorized photo has a minor mistakes, but you can easily find the Order of St. George on Marshal's chest. (second from the left on the order's bracket). You can also find a big amount of other Russian medals with the images of Nicholas II, Alexander III and Peter the Great, 200th anniversary medal of Poltava battle (it was the battle with Sweden!!) and 200th anniversary medal of 1812 war.

Photo was taken on the 70th anniversary of Gustaf Karlovich Mannerheim in 1937.

(http://s60.radikal.ru/i168/1001/6d/a48b3538efe5.jpg) (http://www.radikal.ru)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on January 14, 2010, 04:21:29 PM
List of almost all military decorations of Mannerheim during First and Second World Wars from all over the world and terse information about them.

Although I've been studying Mannerheim for a rather long time, but I've never paid my attention to some interesting and even funny facts with the decorations and medals of this famous commander. And I'm talking not only about the fact, that Mannerheim was the only person, who received (though not all for the current battle achievements and in different times) orders and medals from both sides in both World Wars. I've also found another interesting, funny and even seemingly impossible for a normal intellect facts about Mannerheim's military decorations. I just wanted to say at first, that as I understand Mannerheim, he was never attached much importance to his awards, I mean to their "ethnicity". Mannerheim was a man of the Honor, national leader, military commander and a man who was evaluated people not by their nationality and political views, but for other qualities, like bravery and honesty. So, I made a total and detailed list of Mannerheim's military decorations. People can made their own opinion about Mannerheim after they have read and watched all this list.

During the First World War in a different times and for different achievements Mannerheim received Orders from the both sides of War and from Sweden as a neutral country:

(Finnish White Guard headed by Mannerheim and dislocated in Nothern Finland during the Finish Civil War de facto was receiving a strong help from Germany and was de facto ally of this country, but of course never participated in the First World War. But anyway it was the time of First World War;). So, with a "big reservations" we can consider the first Mannerheim's Finnish Orders as the Orders from the new country which been receiving a big help from the Central powers. I must repeat - with a very "big reservations", because Finland, which gained independence from Bolsheviks only in December of 1917 was never participated directly in the First World War.)

- From the Allies (Entente) powers:
Russia.
Order of St. George of 4th degree. December of 1914, officially awarded in 1915.
St. George Gold Sabre. Awarded on August of 1914.
Order of St. Vladimir of 2nd degree with swords. Awarded in January of 1916.
Order of St. Stanislaus of 1st degree with swords. Awarded on August of 1914.
(http://img682.imageshack.us/img682/9028/rusawards.jpg) (http://img682.imageshack.us/i/rusawards.jpg/)

- From the Central Powers:
Germany.
Iron Cross, Second and First class. Mannerheim (the only Entente General) was awarded by recent enemy in the war!, German Emperor Wilhelm II in 1918 for his outstanding bravery and overwhelming victory in the Finnish Civil War.
(http://img197.imageshack.us/img197/6871/ircross.jpg) (http://img197.imageshack.us/i/ircross.jpg/)

- From his own country Finland (de facto ally of Germany against Red Guard during the Finnish Civil War):
Order of the Cross of Liberty, Big cross with swords. Awarded in April of 1918 for the conquest of Vyborg.
Order of the Cross of Liberty of 1st degree with swords. Awarded for the conquest of Tampere in April of 1918.
Order of the White Rose of Finland, Grand cross. Awarded on May 1919, also for his victory in the Finnish Civil war.
(http://img682.imageshack.us/img682/397/fin1x.jpg) (http://img682.imageshack.us/i/fin1x.jpg/)

- From the neutral country Sweden. (From all non-Russian and non-Finnish Orders Mannerheim always respected and often wore Great and most impartial Swedish Orders):
Order of the Sword, Commander of Grand Cross. Awarded in 1918.
Royal Order of the Seraphim, Knight and Commander. Awarded in 1919.
(http://img5.imageshack.us/img5/1817/swe1t.jpg) (http://img5.imageshack.us/i/swe1t.jpg/)

No comments...


During and slightly before the Second World War Mannerheim was awarded with different decorations  for a different achievements from the both sides and from Sweden as a neutral country.

- From Allies powers during the War and slightly early:
National Order of the Legion of Honour, Grand Cross. (France). Awarded in 1940.
Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (only seven men in British History). Awarded in 1938, just one year before the War.
(http://img5.imageshack.us/img5/1117/gbandfr.jpg) (http://img5.imageshack.us/i/gbandfr.jpg/)

- From the Axis powers during the War:
Germany.
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. Awarded in 1942.
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. Awarded in 1944.
(http://img197.imageshack.us/img197/6020/ircrosssec.jpg) (http://img197.imageshack.us/i/ircrosssec.jpg/)

Italy. Military Order of Italy (Military Order of Savoy), Grand officer. Awarded in May of 1942.
Romania. Order of Michael the Brave 3rd, 2nd and 1st classes (full chevalier). Awarded in November of 1941.
Hungary. Hungarian Order of Merit of St. Stephen with swords and wartime tape. 1942.
Croatia. Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir, Grand Cross with swords. 1942.
(http://img197.imageshack.us/img197/2858/romz.jpg) (http://img197.imageshack.us/i/romz.jpg/)

- From his own country Finland before September of 1944 (fought against USSR in 1939-1940 and 1941-1944):
Only the main military decorations.
Order of the Cross of Liberty, Big cross with swords. Awarded in March of 1940 for the military achievements during the Winter War.
Mannerheim Cross to Order of Liberty, 2nd degree. October of 1941.
Mannerheim Cross to Order of Liberty, 1st degree. October of 1941.
(http://img197.imageshack.us/img197/7552/fin2a.jpg) (http://img197.imageshack.us/i/fin2a.jpg/)

- From the neutral Sweden:
Order of Sword, Knight's Grand Cross (Highest possible military award in Sweden).
(http://img43.imageshack.us/img43/4180/swe2n.jpg) (http://img43.imageshack.us/i/swe2n.jpg/)

No comments...


And something more interesting for a more complete view:

- Mannerheim was a German-Swede by nationality, but during all his life he was wearing on his chest 200th anniversary Russian medal (1909) of Poltava Battle with Sweden. You can see a very beautiful image of Peter the Great on this medal.
- Mannerheim received French Order of the Legion, but at the same time he was also wearing 200th anniversary Russian medal (1912) of the Battle with Napoleon in 1812.
- Mannerheim received highest Japanese Order - Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers, Grand Cordon, 1st class, but he was fighting against Japan in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). After the war he was awarded with Russian Orders with different degrees and with Russo-Japanese War medal in 1905.

From left to right: Russo-Japanese War medal, 200th anniversary medal of Poltava Battle and  200th anniversary medal of the 1812 war with France.
(http://img694.imageshack.us/img694/3222/ruspf.jpg) (http://img694.imageshack.us/i/ruspf.jpg/)

No comments...



*All photos are slightly modified and taken from http://www.mannerheim.fi/.
All of them are property of their owners.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on March 11, 2010, 05:56:52 PM
Another two beautifully and almost accurately colorized photos of Mannerheim. Colorized by GD Lynn.

- On the first photo we can see young Gustaf Karlovich, Rittmeister (Captain) of the HIH Marie Feodorovna's Chevalier Guard Regiment, shortly before an appointment to Nezhinskii Dragoon Regiment and sending to the Russian-Japanese War. 1904.
- On the second we can see the Leader of newborn country Finland, General of Cavalry, Baron C.G.E. Mannerheim. 1918.

(http://img411.imageshack.us/img411/5783/m2as.jpg) (http://img411.imageshack.us/i/m2as.jpg/)
(http://img535.imageshack.us/img535/1629/m3a.jpg) (http://img535.imageshack.us/i/m3a.jpg/)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Mike on March 12, 2010, 04:48:43 AM
Mannerheim's ... lived in a 10-room apartment on Aptekarsky lane, 4
Interesting, I lived next door - 3, Aptekarsky Pereulok - at the age of 0 to 14. Just on the opposite side of this narrow street.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on March 22, 2010, 12:22:18 PM
Interesting and rather rare photo of Mannerheim with GD Olga Alexandrovna which was taken during the War in lazaret. Mannerheim at that time was enlisted in HIM Suite with the rank of Major General and commanded 12th Cavalry division. 1915.

(http://img2.imageshack.us/img2/8074/mannerheimolga.jpg) (http://img2.imageshack.us/i/mannerheimolga.jpg/)

* Photo is posted with the kind permission of an author from the archives of Vitaly Zhumenko, from the album "White Army. Photoportraits of Russian Officers 1917 - 1922", YMCA-PRESS, 2007, PARIS.
   (Фото размещено с любезного согласия автора из архива Виталия Жуменко, из альбома "Белая армия. Фотопортреты русских офицеров 1917 - 1922", YMCA-PRESS, 2007, PARIS.)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on April 05, 2010, 07:19:24 AM
Nicola, you are infinitely more expert than me about uniforms, if you can share informations about these I will be very grateful.

(http://inlinethumb45.webshots.com/6188/2860054020101857556S600x600Q85.jpg) (http://good-times.webshots.com/photo/2860054020101857556Swdpil)(http://inlinethumb22.webshots.com/47509/2826935970101857556S600x600Q85.jpg) (http://good-times.webshots.com/photo/2826935970101857556QdcbMe)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on April 05, 2010, 09:07:13 AM
On the left: Mannerheim is a Cornet in ceremonial uniform (but without copper attributes like cuirass, sword and so on) of the Chevalier Guard of HIH Marie Feodorovna Regiment. (between 1889 and 1893).

On the right: Mannerheim is a Colonel of the 52th Nezhinskii Dragoon Regiment (~1906). You might be surprised that this uniform looks surprisingly like Hussar's uniform. But this is understandable, because 52th Nezhinskii Dragoon Regiment was newly created in 1896 and consisted of different Dragoon squads from Cavalry Regiments, which were de facto Hussar's formations during their History. In 1907 52th Nezhinskii Dragoon Regiment was finally renamed into more appropriate 18th Nezhinskii Hussar's Regiment.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: RomanovsFan4Ever on April 05, 2010, 10:52:14 AM
Thank you very much for the informations.

On the right: Mannerheim is a Colonel of the 52th Nezhinskii Dragoon Regiment (~1906).

So he wore this uniform in Manchuria during the Russo-Japanese war...
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on April 05, 2010, 01:13:31 PM
So he wore this uniform in Manchuria during the Russo-Japanese war...

You are welcome.

Well, no. On the photo you've posted he is wearing Hussar's uniform (it was taken during ceremonial photoshoot), but during the Russo-Japanese War he was wearing in it's own appropriate Regiment's Dragoon uniform (regulated by military statutes). The 18th Nizhinskii Hussar's Regiment became "actually" Hussar's in 1907 after the Russo-Japanese War.
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on April 17, 2010, 06:50:31 PM
Another colorized photo of Mannerheim. Photo itself is taken during the Second Soviet-Finnish War, most likely between 1942 and 1944.

Mannerheim here in it's simplified everyday military uniform. Only the main distinguishing features included: unique Marshal (only the honory title) epaulets with collar tabs and also special sign on the left arm with letter "S" (means Suomi).

From the decorations: on the neck - Mannerheim's Cross of the Order of Liberty Cross 1st degree, near the neck on the left side of chest - small ribbon of Orders from different countries and Finland, slightly below Mannerheim's Cross - Third Reich ribbon to the WWI Iron Cross of 2nd degree and on the bottom left - big star for the rather rare Hungarian Order of Merit, Grand Cross with Swords.

(http://img59.imageshack.us/img59/4405/man4.jpg) (http://img59.imageshack.us/i/man4.jpg/)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on April 22, 2010, 05:45:04 PM
Colorized photo of Mannerheim from it's most prosperous part of the Russian period (1909-1917). Photo is colorized according to the Imperial Russian military laws with some little but inevitable mistakes.

Baron Gustaf Karlovich Mannerheim as a Colonel and Commander of the 13th Ulhan's Vladimir Regiment. 1909 (Dislocation - Poland, near Warsaw).

From the main military decorations, from left to right: Order of St. Stanislaus of the 2nd degree with swords, Order of St. Anna of the 2nd degree with swords, Order of St. Vladimir of the 4th degree with swords and Order of the 3rd degree (on the neck).

(http://img202.imageshack.us/img202/8669/mann4a.jpg) (http://img202.imageshack.us/i/mann4a.jpg/)
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Kalafrana on April 23, 2010, 05:07:13 AM
Since Mannerheim is in full dress I assume that this is a pre-war picture.

Ann
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Nicolá De Valerón on April 23, 2010, 10:49:20 AM
Ann, of course pre-war;).

Btw, if you look carefully, you'll find in the previous post exact date and place: 1909, Poland (or more correctly Polish Principality of the Russian Empire). If more deeply to the theme: I'm sure that this photo was taken just or slightly after Mannerheim's appointment (N-II promised him personally after Mannerheim's traveling to China) as a Commander in the 13th Vladimir Ulhan's Regiment in the first half of 1909 (~Jan-Jul).
Title: Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Post by: Kalafrana on April 24, 2010, 09:27:56 AM
That makes sense.

Ann