Anna Petrovna (Moscow 7 Feb 1708-Kiel 15 May 1728).
She was a third child and first daughter Tsar Peter I and Catherine Alexeevna, Later Empress Catherine I. Her sister Elizabeth Petrovna was a Empress of Russia in 7 Dec 1741 - 5 Jan 1762.
Anna was born out of wedlock and was legitimized on the wedding of her parents in 1712. Her perceived illegitimacy caused several projects of matrimonial alliances to be turned down.
According to contemporaries, Anna strikingly resembled her famous father. She was clever and beautiful, well-educated, was fluent in German, French. Italian and Swedish. It is also known that Anna was devoted to children and took care of her nephew, Peter Alexeevich, later Emperor Peter II, when he was neglected during the reign of Catherine I.
It was finally decided that Anna would marry Karl Friedrich, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, a nephew of childless Karl XII of Sweden.
Karl Friedrich was a son of Friedrich IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and Hedwig Sophie Auguste Pss of Sweden.
He was born in Stockholm 30 Apr 1700 year.
On 17 March 1721, Karl Friedrich arrived in Russia to get acquainted with his future wife and father-in-law. He aspired to use the marriage in order to ensure Russia's support for his plans of retrieving Schleswig from Denmark. He also entertained hopes of being backed up by Russia in his claims to the Swedish throne. Under the terms of the Treaty of Nystad Russia promised not to interfere in the internal affairs of Sweden, so his hopes proved ill-founded.
Another possible candidate as a husband was a grandson of Louis XIV of France; Louis d’Orleans, Duke of Orleans - the son of the Regent of France for the infant Louis XV of France and also the grandson of Madam de Montespan. The marriages proposal was later ignored due to a difference in style of address. Anne was addressed as Her Imperial Highness and Louis was as His Serene Highness.
On 22 November 1724, the marriage contract was signed. By this contract, Anna and Karl Friedrich renounced all rights and claims to the crown of the Russian Empire on behalf of themselves and their descendants. As a result of this clause, the Emperor secured the right to name any of his descendants as his successor on the Russian throne, while the Duke undertook to execute the imperial will without any preconditions.
A few months thereafter, by January 1725, Peter the Great fell mortally ill. As the story goes, on his deathbed he managed to spell the words: to give all..., but could not continue further and sent for Anna to dictate his last will to her. By the time the princess arrived, the Emperor could not pronounce a single word. Based on the story, some historians speculated that Peter's wish was to leave the throne to Anna, but this seems to be doubtful.
The Karl and Anna was marry after Peter's death, on 21 May 1725, in Trinity Church, Saint Petersburg.
The Duke was admitted into the newly-established Supreme Secret Council and exerted a moderate influence on Russian politics. Catherine I's death in 1727 made his position precarious, as the power shifted to the hands of Alexander Menshikov, who aspired to marry the young emperor, Peter II, to his own daughter. A quarrel between the Duke and Menshikov resulted in the former's withdrawing to Holstein on 25 July 1727.
It was here that Anna died on 4 March 1728, within several days after giving birth to son, Karl Peter Ulrich. She had barely turned 20 years old. Before her death, Anna asked to be buried in Russia, near the tombs of her parents in the Peter and Paul Cathedral. Her last will was executed on 12 November the same year.
Anna's husband died in Rolfshagen 18 Jun 1739, and her son - Karl Peter Ulrich became Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. He could thus be considered the heir to both thrones (Russia and Sweden);
Ruled over the Russian Empire as Peter III, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and was the husband of Catherine the Great of Russia
Peter, the future Emperor of Russia and progenitor of all the 19th-century Romanovs.
The Order of St. Anna or "Order of Saint Ann" was a Holstein and then Russian order of chivalry established by Anna's husband on 14 February, 1735, in honour of Anna. The motto of the Order was "Amantibus Justitiam, Pietatem, Fidem" ("To those who love justice, piety, and fidelity"). Its festival day was 3 February.
Portrait of Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. I. Nikitin, 1716
Portrait of Grand Duchesses Anna Petrovna and Elizabeth Petrovna. Louis Caravaque, 1717.
Portraits of Tsesarevna Anna Petrovna
Portrait of Tsesarevna Anna Petrovna. Louis Caravaque, 1725 (before wedding).
Portrait of Tsesarevna Anna Petrovna, Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp
The tomb of Anna Petrovna