Author Topic: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim  (Read 59393 times)

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Zenit21

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Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« on: October 16, 2009, 10:30:19 AM »
"Soul - to God, Loyalty to - the Crown, The Honor - to nobody"
         
  Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim. (4 june 1867 - 28 january 1951)
  Russian General, White Finish General, Marshal of Finland
  President of Finland.
  Devoted to Nicholas II until his last days.
  Legion of Honour (Grand Cross)
  Order of the British Empire (GBE)
  Order of St. George (Russian Empire) (4 class)
  Iron Cross (with Oak Leaves)
  and more then 100 decorations.
 
Interesting facts about the life of the Big leader of a small country.
    He served in the army of Russia (1887-1917) (Genneral Lieutenant), Regent of Finland (1918-1919) fought against the Soviet Union (1939-1940) (1941-1944) (Marshal).
Since 1944, on the side of the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany. The President of Finland (1944-1946)
   Born into an aristocratic Swedish family in Finland (Russia's principality)
He studied at the Nicholas Cavalry School in St. Petersburg.
He is married to a Russian. Two daughters (devoted themselves to religion)
   Participated in four wars, Russian-Japanese war (1905) , The First World, Finnish Civil War (1918) (White Victory), the Second World War.
   Monarchist, devoted until his last years to Nicholas II, then defended Finland from Bolsheviks (1918) and proclaimed a republic. Finland became a democratic country.
   He was only ally of Hitler, that did not give him the Jews during war. Refused the bombing of Petersburg. Only Marshal of Finland in it's history. Create his own Order of the Mannerheim Cross. (design similar to the Order of St.George)
   Fluent in Russian, English, French and German. Finnish known poorly, for that he had been joked hardly in Finland. Also knew several languages and understand Chinese. 
   Honorary Member of the Russian Geographical Society. Had a mission in China for 2 years (1906-1908) during which met with the Dalai Lama. Geographical studies were a cover for intelligence activities. After the expedition he met with Nicholas II.
Was well received in the most elite circles of Russia empire. On several occasions met personally with Nicholas II and Alexandra Feodorovna.
   Was the only man in history to receive during the First and Second World Wars awards from both the opposing sides. Among all the commanders during World War II had the highest rank in the First World. He was General of Cavalry (1918)
   He loved order, but did not like the Germans (in First World War he fought for Russia). Although he had the Iron Cross (1918) and fought for Hitler against the USSR until 1944.
   He loved Russian cuisine and liked sometimes  to drink a glass of vodka
Respected the Orthodox religion , but was Protestant. 
Until the end of his days on the desktop had a portrait with a photograph of Nicholas II.
   He is respected in Russia, Sweden and Finland. But he remains one of the most controversial figures in military history to this day. In Finland, for example, he was always being called Russian, for his devotion to Russia. In Russia he will always be remembered, mainly among ordinary people, only for his war against USSR and his legendary Mannerheim Line.
  All in all His life can be characterized  like this this sad expression :
       "Insider among strangers and stranger among insiders".

       
 

RomanovsFan4Ever

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #1 on: October 16, 2009, 11:25:22 AM »
I read a book about him recently, Mannerheim - The Finnish years by J.E.O Screen, it is mostly about the time of when he was Marshal, and after president of Finland, until his last years of life, but I'd like to read a book about the time of when he served in the Russian army.
He is a very interesting historical character, but unfortunately it's rarely mentioned in the books of history here in my country....or better, he is mentioned sometimes, but it's very rare to find detailed informations about his life and his military and political career...a pity.

http://www.mannerheim.fi/navi-e/05_keh.htm
« Last Edit: October 16, 2009, 11:39:55 AM by RomanovsFan4Ever »

Zenit21

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #2 on: October 16, 2009, 12:09:09 PM »
Yes it is very sad that for the world he still known only for Mannerheim Line anf Winter War(1939).
In fact he was very interesting person. For example, the Empress Maria Feodorovna was inspired of him (frendship). She helped him in his career
And later when she was in exile Mannerheim met her.
  Or that he offered Kolchak 100000 soldiers to go  to Petrograd during the Civil War. Instead he requested the recognition of independence of Finland from White Movement. But Kolchak denied his help.

RomanovsFan4Ever

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #3 on: October 17, 2009, 09:41:55 AM »
the Empress Maria Feodorovna was inspired of him (frendship). She helped him in his career

Another reason why I consider Empress Maria Feodorovna as a very intelligent and farsighted person.

As you have correctly said, Mannerheim was always devoted to Nicholas II (although he considered him as an irresoluted Ruler), I wonder if the Tsar reciprocated that admiration, do you know something about a meeting of them?...

« Last Edit: October 17, 2009, 10:10:22 AM by RomanovsFan4Ever »

Zenit21

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #4 on: October 17, 2009, 01:29:09 PM »
Here are excerpts from the Mannerheim memoirs.
Unfortunately, he wrote them in a very terse language. He'd always conceal his emotions and left to us much unsaid.
But anyway, I found in this memoirs something interesting.
This is my translation from Russian, sorry for small mistakes.

About Maria Feodorovna: 
  "Once a year the chief of our regiment Empress Maria Feodorovna with her husband Emperor Alexander III had hosted all the officers of our regiment. Empress, the daughter of Danish King Christian IX, always sympathetic to Finland, and we Finns called her with her  northern woman's name - Empress Dagmar. Later, during my travels in Central Europe, I visited Denmark, and I had the opportunity to express all my respects to Her Majesty, who lived in that country for her last years".

About his personal meetings with the Emperor:
 
Meeting after his expedition in China (1906-1908).
    "I received an invitation to the emperor to tell him him about my expedition. I asked him how long time will be given to me, and he said that twenty minutes will be enough. Since the emperor was not going to sit down, I asked if he could start, he nodded. I reported standing. Questions that Emperor asked to me showed that he found my report interesting. Present from the Dalai Lama, he taken in accordance with tradition - at arm's length.
   Looking at the table clock, I noticed that my report took not twenty minutes, it took one hour and twenty minutes. I immediately apologized, explaining that I did not noticed, as time passed. His Majesty smiled, thanked me for the interesting story and said that he also did not notice how time passed.
   Upon concluding the meeting, His Majesty asked about my plans. "I hope I soon be able to command a regiment, Your Majesty, because at the time of my absence, I was dismissed from the army" - I said. The emperor replied that this problem should not bother me. Like, for commanding the regiment, I still have time, but the opportunity to fulfill such a task, that got me, falls not for everyone. Later I understood that His Majesty was right"

Meeting in 1917 (maybe last)
   "Upon arriving in Bessarabia at the end of January 1917, I requested a brief visit to Finland, and received a permit. In mid-February I was in Petrograd and heard that the emperor was at Tsarskoe Selo. Since I was a member of His Majesty's suite, and previously commanded the Guards Uhlans, I could expect that the His Majesty will accept me. On that day, the reception was appointed only for two people, and I very quickly had an audience with the Emperor. In the custom of the emperor was listening carefully to everything that was being reported, and I thought he was interested in the message about the situation on the Rumanian front. But, as it seemed to me at that moment his thoughts took a completely different problem." (Of course about Revolution)



 

RomanovsFan4Ever

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #5 on: October 17, 2009, 02:15:03 PM »
Thank you very much!, it is very helpful to me, it's exactly what I was looking for.

Also, you have mentioned another interesting chapter of Mannerheim's life that I'd like to know more: the adventurous expedition in China, it surely was an epic journey, as well as the Arctic expedition.

RomanovsFan4Ever

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #6 on: October 18, 2009, 04:39:34 AM »
Exhibition dedicated to Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim of the Hermitage Museum: http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/04/2005/hm4_1_96.html

Zenit21

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #7 on: October 18, 2009, 07:20:10 AM »
If are you interested I can tell a story about Mannerheim's victory over the Bolsheviks in the Finnish Civil War.
     I tell it in general terms.
There was a famous writer in the USSR Viktor Astafyev, by the way a good writer, tried to wrote the truth about the war. He fought in World War II and later wrote about the war. He once traveled, many years after the war to Finland for the meeting with finnish  veterans and talked there with one of them. And so, between the case asked him: "Why Finland have such a good roads ? Such a high quality of life ? High level of civil liberties? Why Finland is democratic country ?", and etc. (Unlike the Soviet Union where government fought only against American imperialism, while people at that time had nothing to eat). And finnish veteran replied him with reasonable answer - "Maybe because we had the White Army Victory in the Finnish Civil War ?":) (Headed by Mannerheim)
    No comments:)

About expedition
Yes it was a very interesting expedition.
The expedition lasted from 29 March 1906 until 21 December 1908.
The main task of the expedition was the intelligence activities and ground mapping.
Key dates:
    June 19 Mannerheim with a huge luggage, camera "Kodak"
    departing from the capital.
    July 29, 1906 in Tashkent expedition got under way.
    In May, Mannerheim met with the Dalai Lama XIII in Utayshan.
    12 July 1908 the expedition arrived in Beijing.
    Before leaving to Russia, Mannerheim made a trip to Japan.  Where he found the military capabilities of the port of  Shimonoseki.
    Then Mannerheim arrived in Vladivostok.
    And after he completed the mission he arrived in St. Petersburg, where he made a report to the Russian Geographical Society, and then to the Emperor.
    Some results of the expedition:
The map shows 3087 km of track.
Plans for 20 Chinese garrison towns.
Described the city of Lanzhou as a possible future Russia's military base in China.
Evaluated the troops, industry and mining in China.
Rated construction of railways in China.
Collected 1200 different interesting items related to Chinese culture.
Brought about 2000 ancient Chinese manuscripts.
Brought a rare collection of Chinese drawings from Lanzhou.
Done phonetic dictionary languages of nationalities living in northern China.
Brought 1353 photograph.
Mannerheim rode on horseback about 14 000 km.
The results of the expedition are still tremendous value for the entire geographical society.

RomanovsFan4Ever , do not be offended:)
but Mannerheim was never been in the Arctic expedition.
Although, if we would based on his life, he could go to anywhere,
even to Arctic, even to Antarctic:)


RomanovsFan4Ever

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #8 on: October 18, 2009, 07:35:40 AM »
RomanovsFan4Ever , do not be offended:)
but Mannerheim was never been in the Arctic expedition.
Although, if we would based on his life, he could go to anywhere,
even to Arctic, even to Antarctic:)

Hahah, you are totally right :-) , I think that I confused him with another, or maybe I thought that I read something about an "Arctic expedition" but actually it was a fake remembrance, thank you for the correction.

I'm amazed by the big and detailed quantity of informations that you have about him, I'm sure that I will learn a lot in this topic!  ;)

Zenit21

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #9 on: October 19, 2009, 06:19:23 AM »
List of his main decorations and it's photos.

Russian decorations:

Order of St. Anna, 2nd degree (1906)

Order of St. Stanislaus, 2nd class (1906)

Order of St. Vladimir, 4th degree (1906)

Order of St. George, Knight 4th class (1914)

      
      French decorations (only main):

Legion of Honor Grand Cross (Highest possible degree) (1939)

      
      British decorations (only main):

Order of British Empire Knight Grand Cross (Highest possible degree) (1938)

    
      German decorations (only main):

Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (1944)

      
      Finnsish decorations (only main):

Mannerheim Cross Knight 1st and 2nd class (1941)



Note.
All photos are from Wikipedia, www.ww2awards.com and photo of St.George order are from site http://award.armor.kiev.ua/georg/index.html. Thanks to all this sites.
« Last Edit: October 19, 2009, 06:22:15 AM by Zenit21 »

RomanovsFan4Ever

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #10 on: October 19, 2009, 08:30:45 AM »
www.ww2awards.com

Great website!, I'm never visited it before, thank you for the link.

The list of all his main decorations from the time spent in the Russian army to the time of his military career in Finland, shows very well the great importance of Mannerheim in the history, and I still wonder why he don't have much consideration through books of history (at least out of Finland and Russia).
« Last Edit: October 19, 2009, 08:33:57 AM by RomanovsFan4Ever »

RomanovsFan4Ever

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #11 on: October 20, 2009, 06:45:24 AM »
I found a documentary about Mannerheim, Mannerheim - General of the Czar, Marshal of Finland", it's a Finnish documentary with English subtitles, this is the link for the first video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYYJlyoR2IY

You can find all the other parts there...

Zenit21, maybe you have already seen it, but I'd like to know what do you think about it, it seems a very reliable source to me...
« Last Edit: October 20, 2009, 06:55:33 AM by RomanovsFan4Ever »

Zenit21

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #12 on: October 20, 2009, 06:29:33 PM »
RomanovsFan4Ever, of course I've seen it. Well done documentary. But I think it focused mainly on his Finnish carrier. For me Mannerheim is interesting mainly for his Russian period.
Anyway, it's very good documentary for the first time.

Offline Nicolá De Valerón

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #13 on: November 07, 2009, 02:09:08 PM »
Chief of the 12th Cavalry Division, Major General Mannerheim. Fourth from left(black hat). 1915.

http://rgakfd.altsoft.spb.ru/getImage.do?object=1807946575&original=1
« Last Edit: November 07, 2009, 02:12:57 PM by Nicola De Valeron »
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Offline Nicolá De Valerón

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Re: Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
« Reply #14 on: November 20, 2009, 08:23:35 PM »
I'm apologies to Zenit21, but I also are very interested in this person.

Here are main dates and events of his interesting Russian period of life. A lot of private events and a lot of interesting information, but unknown for common people.
Reading all this, allways wonders of how he could become such an a great man.
Hope, that you found it very interesting.

 This is first part, from his Born to 1905(Russian-Japanese War)
 
 4 June 1867. Born in the family of the Swedish aristocrat, Baron Karl Rubert Mannerheim. Place of birth - estate Louhisaari.
 
 In 1882-1886 studied at the Finnish Cadet Corps, but was expelled for misbehavior and misconduct. After graduating from a private school in Helsinki, passed the entrance examinations in Helsingfors University (1887).
 In the Russian army was in 1887-1917, began with the rank of cornet and ended with an lieutenant general.
 1887-1889 - Nikolayev's Cavalry School.

 1889-1890 - served in the 15-Th Alexandria cavalry regiment, in Kalisz (Poland). Cavalry Regiment
 1891 - January 20, entered the service in the Cavalry Regiment, which maintained strict discipline. Mannerheim lived on a salary, a very meager.
 1892 - May 2, married Anastasia Arapova, daughter of Horse Guards, General Nikola Arapov, with a rich dowry. Now Gustav Turns thoroughbred horses, which are beginning to take the prizes at the races and competitions, often acts as a rider himself.
 1893 - April 23, a daughter Anastasia born.
 1894 - July, died in childbirth newborn son. Strongly experiencing this event.
 1895 - March 24, Gustav acquainted with the 40-year-old Countess Elizabeth Shuvalova, with whom had later a novel.
July 1, Lieutenant Mannerheim received the first in his life of a Foreign Order - cavalry cross the Austrian Order of Franz Josef.
July 7, a daughter Sophia born.
 1896 - 14 May, participated in the coronation of Nicholas II as a junior assistant. On May 16 the Kremlin Palace hosted a reception for the officers of the regiment, where      Mannerheim had a long conversation with the Emperor.
 
 1897 - September 14, an imperial decree Gustav moved in the Court of Konyushennaya leaving lists Cavalry Regiment, with a salary of 300 rubles, and two state apartments: in the capital and in Tsarskoe Selo.
 1898 - from March 27 to April 10, Mannerheim was a member of the panel of judges Michael's arena, and then went on a long trip on horseback plants - complete with stables, horses were his main concern. In early June, Mannerheim meets Brusilov. In November, had  a trip to Berlin, during the inspection of horses three-year old mare crushed Gustav patella.
 1899 - in mid-January finally started to get out of bed and walk with crutches.
June 22, Mannerheim went along with the Countess Shuvalova treat a knee on mud resort Gapsal, where he received an order of rank the staff-captain.
August 12, staff-captain already in the capital with the affairs of a wide range: from a complete set of horses Konyushennaya to sell manure for the estate EIV Vasilchikova maid of honor.
 1900 - January, spent much time at the range, where testing of new carriages for the royal family.
April 12, Gustav receives first Russian order - the Order of St. Anne 3rd degree. On May 24 head of the office Konyushennaya part, which worked, for the most part, wives of officers of the same Konyushennaya part. The whole year has passed in the family scandals as Gustav continued an affair with the Countess Shuvalova, and with the actress Vera Mikhailovna.
 1901 - In early February Mannerheim abroad. Upon his return a lot of work, putting things in order in the pension stables, a horse hospital. Often visited the racetrack, not forgetting to visit and cereal other places.
In summer the couple Mannerheims acquires an estate in Courland and in early August the whole family go to Aprikken. There, located in the ancient house of Gustav continued his affairs. Wife in response enrolled in nursing and the community of St. George in early September, leaving the Far East.
In October, the Mannerheim elect a 80-m an active member of the Imperial Society trotting races on Semenovsky Square and a member of the judging committee.
 1902 - The wife returned to St. Petersburg.
In mid-March Brusilov agrees with the transition of Mannerheim to his cavalry officer's school. In May Gustav acquainted with ballet star Tamara Karsavina, with whom Mannerheim later have maintained friendly relations. Another holiday Mannerheim held separately from the family in Finland.
December 20 he was given the rank of Captain.
 1903 - His spouse sells the property, the money transferred to the Paris banks, says goodbye to fellow, and, taking their daughters and documents on Aprikken, left for France on the Cote d'Azur.
Baron is one on one with an officer's salary and with gambling debts.
 1904 - January 15, Gustav celebrated New Year at the Winter Palace, with the Emperor at the ball.
January 27, Mannerheim presented at the ceremony of the official announcement of Nicholas II and the war with Japan. As part of the guard he did not go to the war, Mannerheim went on to serve in the capital.
 Mannerheim suddenly decided to go to the war.
Saturday night October 9, 1904, Lieutenant Colonel of 52-Th Regiment Dragoons Nezhinsky Baron Mannerheim on express train went to Manchuria.....

To be continued ...


*some info are taken from Wikipedia.


« Last Edit: November 20, 2009, 08:29:27 PM by Nicola De Valeron »
"I think that if Shakespeare lived in our times he would not be able to write. Many of his works are not welcome on stage nowadays: The Merchant of Venice – anti-Semitism, Othello – racism, The Taming of the Shrew – sexism, Romeo and Juliet - hideous heterosexual show..." - Vladimir Bukovsky.