Author Topic: Civil Lists in the German Empire and Europe  (Read 3960 times)

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Naslednik Norvezhskiy

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Civil Lists in the German Empire and Europe
« on: March 11, 2010, 05:51:38 PM »
In the Anhalt thread Margot suggested that it could be very interesting and enlightening (with regard to which royals were good matches etc.) to see a list of the civil lists of reigning houses.
I found this list in the online version of Meyers Konversationslexikon (1905-1909 edition), in the volume 20 dating from 1909:

Zivillisten (Krondotationen):

"With appanages" means that the sum includes parliamentary annuities specifically granted to junior members of the house. If not, the ruler had to pay such annuities to his family out of his own civil list and/or private fortune. All numbers (including the non-German ones) are in German Imperial Marks:
The translation is:

Prussia 15.7 million (1820: 7.7 million, in 1858 increased with 1.5 million, in 1868, with 3 million and in 1889 again with 3.5 million, the German Emperor does not draw a civil list.);
Bavaria 4.2 million, Regency and appanages 1.171.431;
Saxony 3.410.575 and 757.681 appanages;
Württemberg in addition to appanages 2.127.030;
Hesse (with appanages) 1.2 mill;
Baden (for the Grand-Ducal House) 1.841.412;
Oldenburg 665.000;
Brunswick (for the Court State Treasury) 1.1 million;
Saxe-Weimar 1.020.000;
Saxe-Meiningen, 394.286 and half of the domain income, budgeted at 503.019;
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (in the Duchy of Gotha half of the domain income, in the Duchy of Coburg the domain wealth was divided between the Duke and the State in 1905);
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 515.034;
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt with appanage 336.667;  
-
Austria-Hungary 19.226.000;
Italy 12.8 million;
UK, 9.5. million and 2.1 in appanages;
Spain 7.1 million;
Denmark 1.2 million (with appanages);
Norway 0.5 million (with appanages)
Sweden 1.5 million ordinarily and 358.400 extraordinarily;
Belgium 4.3 million (with "dotations");
Netherlands, 1.5 million;
Portugal, 1.8 million;
Greece, 900.000 (for King and Crown Prince);
Serbia 960.000;
Montenegro 200,000;
Luxembourg, 160,000;
Russia, 34.2 million;
Japan 6 million.

The article adds:
In France it was fixed in 1790 at 25 million Francs, under Louis-Philippe it was 12 million Francs. Before 1870, the total expense of the imperial house was estimated at 40 million Francs. The President of the French Republic draws a salary of 600.000 Francs and 600.000 Francs for representation and travel.


My guess is that those German states left out: Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Saxe-Altenburg, Waldeck-Pyrmont, Lippe, Schaumburg-Lippe and the both Reuß states still operated on a level where the domains were not divided between prince and state and primarily served the prince and his house as source of income.
I don't know why Bulgaria and Romania were not included.

It's interesting to note that the Belgian royals seem extremely well off, for example compared to their Dutch cousins. The Norwegian monarchy was extremely modest, but then the Norwegian royal family was very small and Norway almost as poor as Greece in this period. I think Röhl writes quite a lot about how Wilhelm II had the Prussian civil list seriously increased. Notice also the big difference between Spain and Italy. Of course Russia stands out, even among fellow empires.

If somebody wants to do more research, I know that the Gotha actually had quite a lot of statistics about each country's finances and budgets.
« Last Edit: March 11, 2010, 06:17:54 PM by Fyodor Petrovich »

Naslednik Norvezhskiy

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Re: Civil Lists in the German Empire and Europe
« Reply #1 on: March 11, 2010, 06:36:47 PM »
My guess is that those German states left out: Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Saxe-Altenburg, Waldeck-Pyrmont, Lippe, Schaumburg-Lippe and the both Reuß states still operated on a level where the domains were not divided between prince and state and primarily served the prince and his house as source of income.
Bingo, at least with regard to Reuß jüngerer Linie! The German Wikipedia says: Since 1854 the Princely House owned all domains (mostly forests), which had their own administration. This "state within the state" brought in a revenue of 713.000 Mark in 1913. So the petty prince of a territory not much bigger or more populated than a Norwegian province had a larger income than the Norwegian RF!
« Last Edit: March 11, 2010, 06:46:08 PM by Fyodor Petrovich »

Offline Margot

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Re: Civil Lists in the German Empire and Europe
« Reply #2 on: March 13, 2010, 03:08:48 PM »
Thank Fyodor Petrovich!

I have found that Foxy Ferdinand of Bulgaria had 40,000 pounds a year as his civil list with an additional 30,000 pounds per annum for the maintenance of the Royal Palaces! The Romanian Civil list provided the King with 47,000 pounds per annum in addition to certain revenues from unspecified lands!
« Last Edit: March 13, 2010, 03:11:19 PM by Margot »

Offline Margot

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Re: Civil Lists in the German Empire and Europe
« Reply #3 on: March 13, 2010, 03:54:22 PM »
Nicholas of Montenegro also provided his daughter Anna with a dowry of 500,000 florins (Austrian Krone post 1892) which equated to 20,860 pounds at the time! The future King's income was such that he had to pay the dowry in installments over time!

I have no idea if he settled similar amounts on his other daughters. Militza, Stana and Elena married wealthy men of independent means! Only Zorka and Anna married men who were  less than financially secure at the time of their marriages!

Offline Margot

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Re: Civil Lists in the German Empire and Europe
« Reply #4 on: March 13, 2010, 04:19:19 PM »
Apparently the Duke of Saxe Altenburg had a long running dispute with his government over his assets and income, which was only resolved in 1874 when an agreement was reached over the Public domains. The reigning Duke and his successors would have two thirds of Public domains in lieu of a Civil List. I have no idea why the dispute ocurred although perhaps it had something to do with when the reigning Duke of Saxe Hildburghausen ceded his Duchy to his Meiningen neighbour in order to inherit Saxe Altenburg and maybe discovered something about his lovely new inheritance that was not to his liking!!!!

« Last Edit: March 13, 2010, 04:23:34 PM by Margot »