Author Topic: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II  (Read 190153 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline Carolath Habsburg

  • Velikye Knyaz
  • ****
  • Posts: 4809
  • As seen on TUMBLR!
    • View Profile
    • Victorian & edwardian roleplay in spanish!
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #90 on: December 15, 2010, 12:16:02 PM »
And this one



Not following Elisabeth but sitting on her lap.

Courtesy of Grand Duchess Ally

"...Пусть он землю бережет родную, А любовь Катюша сбережет....". Grand Duchess Ekaterina Fyodorovna to Grand Duke Georgiy Alexandrovich. 1914

Join the cause "We want an Ignore button

Offline Pezzazz

  • Boyar
  • **
  • Posts: 203
    • View Profile
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #91 on: December 15, 2010, 12:49:03 PM »
Here's the source and below that is the citation given from this source.   It would seem Mary Vetsera might have kept a copy/ies of Rudolph's letter/s -- probably written in her own hand since they didn't have ready copiers back then.
-------------------------------------------------------------

From Mayerling to Sarajevo
Author(s): Rudolph Binion  Source: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Jun., 1975), pp. 280-316

Quote
On the one hand, Mary could keep no secrets from Larisch. Early along, Mary remarked to her friend abroad upon sending her a copy of a letter in which Rudolf declared that "he could not live without her and would go mad if he might no longer see her," that she would have sent an original except that
Marie takes all his letters right back again. . ."160

160 Vetsera. p. 24, cf. p. 60-

Helene Vetsera, Das Drama von Mayerling D er Tod des Kronprinzen Rudolf u.
der Baronesse Mary Vetsera. Gemeinsamer verabredeter Tod. Die Denkschrift der
Baronin-Mutter Helene Vetsera (lleichenberg, 1921)

« Last Edit: December 15, 2010, 12:54:21 PM by Pezzazz »
If the lessons of history teach us anything it is that nobody learns the lessons that history teaches us.

Offline Imperial_Grounds

  • Knyaz
  • ****
  • Posts: 579
  • Your Memory Keeps Me Alive
    • View Profile
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #92 on: December 15, 2010, 02:02:28 PM »
That does explain why there are no letters from Rudolf himself... But if Rudolf really wrote that it would go along with what Mary had written to others, about their affaire, yet Rudolf might have been decieving her or she could even have made it up herself.... But why?
Learn To Live With My Darker Side

Offline Pezzazz

  • Boyar
  • **
  • Posts: 203
    • View Profile
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #93 on: December 15, 2010, 05:57:10 PM »
Judtmann claimed to see some telegrams from Rudolph to Mary, but he didn't show any images.   However, he did say it seemed by the wording that Rudolph was very carefully trying to put Mary off him.................that's one of the reasons I suspected some sort of blackmail -- perhaps through her and not by her.

Here's another drawing unfortunately, but I like it anyway.   Rudolph was doing ~ 40 audiences per day up until Mayerling, so that does put a question mark on how sick and wasted he really was -- especially since those closest to him denied that he was having any serious health issues.

If the lessons of history teach us anything it is that nobody learns the lessons that history teaches us.

Offline Imperial_Grounds

  • Knyaz
  • ****
  • Posts: 579
  • Your Memory Keeps Me Alive
    • View Profile
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #94 on: December 16, 2010, 01:57:50 PM »
Well, we must also keep in mind that a depression not always shows in psychical illness.... You don't always notice the signs. And Rudolf certainly had a tendency towards melancholy and depression. And there are claims that he seemed tired and such during the last months, but nothing about a real illness - if you don't count in the STD, which in those days was not uncommon in a High Rank(remember that it is highly possible FJ transmitted one to Elisabeth and that Rudolf himself certainly infected his wife)
Learn To Live With My Darker Side

Offline Pezzazz

  • Boyar
  • **
  • Posts: 203
    • View Profile
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #95 on: December 16, 2010, 10:15:26 PM »
Anyway, back to the cause of Rudolph’s death………………………..The following material came mostly from Bismarck’s Reflections & Reminiscences, Mayerling Murders, Secrets of the Hohenzollerns and Diplomatic Mysteries.

Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen (1815-1898)

Bismarck was ambitious to establish Prussia's leadership within Germany and eliminate the influence of Austria. He secured Austria's support for his successful war against Denmark then, in 1866, went to war against Austria and its allies (the Seven Weeks' War), his victory forcing Austria out of the German Bund and unifying the northern German states into the North German Confederation under his own chancellorship in 1867. He then defeated France, under Napoleon III, in the Franco-Prussian War 1870–71, proclaimed the German Empire in 1871, and annexed Alsace-Lorraine. He tried to secure his work by the Triple Alliance in 1881 with Austria and Italy but ran into difficulties at home with the Roman Catholic Church and the socialist movement and was forced to resign by Wilhelm II on 18 March 1890.




It all came back to Bismarck, the blood and iron chancellor of the German Empire and the most effective leader since Napoleon.  Bismarck was a man of exceptional abilities -- highly intelligent with an iron will, resolve, pragmatism and persuasiveness but his greatest asset at least in carrying out his goals was a lack of conscience -- he had no scruples.  The Empress Frederick once wrote that Bismarck had no sense of right or wrong.

This was a man who was proud that he was able to cause the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 through forgery -- by rewriting the first Emperor William's peace-bringing dispatch into a crude call for war.  His lack of any moral sense showed in an absence of respect for human life.  People died when they got in his way.  Bismarck once said: "  I have had singular good luck in seeing the people who stood most in my way disappear at just the right time." It was fatal—to be an enemy of Bismarck.

Add to this mix the quick witted and outspoken Crown Prince Rudolph, who unlike his father had never forgiven or forgotten the Austrian defeat at the battle of Königgrätz when he was 8 years old.  Rudolph was a determined enemy of Prussia and Bismarck but at the same time, he showed no aversion to Russia and he paraded his love for France and England in his "Black and Yellow" journal as he called it, perhaps more out of wish to annoy Bismarck than anything else.

In many articles, Rudolph attacked the alliance Austria was forced to make with the new German power.  His bitter words for Bismarck read that when his day should come, it would give way to new European alliances.  He wrote, "The actual alliance is necessary for the moment, and under the circumstances, it was a wise policy to make.  Some day a wiser policy will unmake it".  There is a record of the temper in which Bismarck read this defiance.  The possibility of an alliance between Austria and France once Rudolph came to the throne haunted Bismarck at least 10 years before Rudolph's death according to letters from Bismarck to his son.  The thought of Austria and France in league with Russia and/or the Roman Curia became a nightmare for Bismarck and so he riveted his eagle eye on the Crown Prince Rudolph.

So long as Rudolph lived and might reign, all the life work Bismarck had given to building a strong and expansive German Empire would fail. The victory won in the battle of Königgrätz had to be completed at Mayerling.

Nor was there any first thought of killing.  That would be premature, and Bismarck had the infinite patience of a wild animal stalking its prey and could easily take years to set up his plans if that was necessary.  Bismarck couldn't risk leaving Austria with a martyred national hero.  He would first have
to destroy Rudolph's reputation before having him killed. 

The diverse races of Austria were knit together by one common loyalty to the house of Hapsburg. Vaguely it went out to the old emperor playing his card games in the Hofburg.  There was also some loyalty to the old empress, busy as she was with her ghosts, cigarettes and Heine's poems. But the hope and strength of this loyalty went most of all to Rudolph.  The loyalty of Austria centered on him and laid all their hopes upon him.  He was the people's prince and in return loved his country.   

Like all other great plans, Bismarck's project for dismembering Rudolph was simple -- he sent his Golden Cavalry to the very heart of the old empire.  One could trace their hoof-marks to the very door of the royal palace.  Their noise was heard on the stone flags of the Ballplatz.  (The Ballplatz in Vienna was a little stone square on the side of the foreign office which swarm with unscrupulous, purchasable men, idle aristocrats and " little brothers of the rich".)  Many a time the keen charge of the golden gulden hit its mark.  His mercenaries -- agents, spies and double spies were busy in every province and at every level of society.

Bismarck's organization in Austria was indefinite and powerful, and not all of these hacks were hired with money.  Ambition bought some. Others were sincere patriots, seeing in the downfall of Austria an opportunity for the freedom of a new Hungary or the creation of a new Slavic empire......................................

As Rudolph said to Moritz Szeps when the general distribution of the latter's paper was prohibited:  "We have been driven into darkness...........and it's partly the work of the Jesuits, who are closely connected with all the most influential members of the Imperial family.  I am not allowed to move, and I have grown so distrustful of everybody around me that life is becoming torture.  Soon I won't even trust old Nehammaer (his oldest and most devoted servant)."  What Rudolph didn't realize at this time is that it was Bismarck who had Szep's paper shut down knowing that Rudolph frequently wrote articles for it.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
If the lessons of history teach us anything it is that nobody learns the lessons that history teaches us.

Offline Pezzazz

  • Boyar
  • **
  • Posts: 203
    • View Profile
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #96 on: December 16, 2010, 10:17:13 PM »
There were weak points to Rudolph's circumstances to which Bismarck could hack away.   I'm not sure how much of Rudolph's folly was real and how much was from Bismarck's treachery, but always a pleasure-loving man who likes to associate with all kinds is vulnerable.  Lord Salisbury wrote to an ambassador saying of the German Chancellor Bismarck:  “He has a vast corrupt influence over the press and can give enormous circulation to slanders.”

In addition to a steady campaign of outright slander, here are some examples in Rudolph's life that gave vent to Bismarck's ability to further malign Rudolph:

1--One of the claims was that Rudolph was a liberal in theory only, not in practice.
Of course this statement could be made about anyone born and raised in an imperial family regardless of their social beliefs.

2--Bismarck also had help in the nature of Rudolph's wife.  Due to her unfortunate relationship with her dreadful father, she had a small reservoir of trust for any man, so when the whispers of Rudolph's many dalliances (real or imagined?) were duly reported to her, the domestic bliss to which Rudolph often referred when speaking of his marriage in the early years ended.  Stephanie also likedto make all her thoughts public which was another plus for Bismarck’s aims.  Given these circumstances, one cannot even be sure what Stephanie said was true, or if she even knew what the truth was.
 
3--Another fact of Rudolph's life made full use by Bismarck -- especially in the explanation of his death -- was the taint of the famous Bavarian madness in his blood by which any potential extreme behavior can be attributed to Rudolph at no great surprise to anyone.

By 1888, time was running out for Bismarck.  Talk of revanche by France and more war talk from England made it clear that Germany had to secure its rear before it became involved in another war.   Bismarck had become so paranoid about a possible accession of Rudolph that early one morning in November 1888, he even showed up without warning at Schloss Laxenburg to confirm whether or not the rumor was true that Franz Joseph planned to abdicate in favor of his son.
--------------------------------------------------

Two important figures stand out in the undistinguished crowd recruited by Bismarck's Golden Calvary -- the most notable was Philip of Coburg. This sinister man was a brother-in-law of Rudolph, married to Princess Louise, sister of Stephanie.   Many a time Louise would flee back to Belgium with both eyes not only red from crying, but also black and blue.   Her wretched father always sent her back to her abusive husband.  Finally when she summoned the courage to leave him, she made the mistake of asking him for money.   He gave her forged bills of sale for some of her sister's jewels and as a result, Louise and her lover were charged with criminal theft and she was confined to an insane asylum for 8 years instead of jail, and her lover was thrown into jail.  Philip of Coburg was also close to his brother, Ferdinand of Bulgaria who gave as little thought to beating his wife as he did ordering an assassination, both of which he did with few, if any misgivings.



The second figure fastened onto the Crown Prince was Count Josef Hoyos, an accomplished man of the world, a boon companion, and although his rank was high and he had fortune his wants always seemed to outrun his means. He was as ready as any other to take Prussian gold.  A Hoyos even married Bismarck's oldest son a couple years after Mayerling.   



Another possibility was Mary Vetsera,—a woman with restless eyes and a bad reputation for being fast and easy in Vienna might also have been within this group, at least initially.  There are separate reports she was also involved romantically with both Philip of Coburg and Josef Hoyos at different times.

Even Mizzi Caspar had a lawyer friend named Florian Meissner who was a double agent in the pay of both Vienna and Berlin.  He reported Rudolph's activities not only to the local Austrian police but to the German Embassy as well.

On his final trip to Mayerling the Crown Prince went alone and many believe that no friend of his or true man ever saw him alive again. 

It is known that Philip of Coburg, Hoyos, and a Baltazzi were at Mayerling along with Vetsera and probably the German agent woman who accompanied her, but there were probably many others at Mayerling by the last night.

Neither the first night nor the next day was the prince seen. Then came the last night and outside, the lackeys drowsed among the horses. It was nearly midnight when they heard shouting within and pistol shots. Having looked in for a moment, they fled away, shrieking. They had seen what it is
not well for lowly men to see.

Rudolph received a mortal wound from the titanic force of a champagne bottle crashing into his brain.    They carried him to an upstairs bedroom where he survived unconscious for many hours.  Many others died that night -- possibly from getting in the line of fire or to eliminate witnesses.

That was all.  Dawn arrived and the court quickly cast a veil of royal lies over the deaths.  Bismarck telegraphed his sympathy.

But what did Philip of Coburg, Count Hoyos and Loschek tell the Emperor, and why was the court willing to accept the obvious inconsistencies and discrepancies in their stories?

If the lessons of history teach us anything it is that nobody learns the lessons that history teaches us.

Offline Imperial_Grounds

  • Knyaz
  • ****
  • Posts: 579
  • Your Memory Keeps Me Alive
    • View Profile
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #97 on: December 17, 2010, 03:08:07 PM »
A fascinating story.... I never liked Bismarck. Not at all, he's too much of a fiend. The way he used the young Emperor Wilhelm for his own goals and the way he treated the Empress Dowager Victoria... Such a shame. And Wilhelm, vain and proud as he was, simply went along with him(leading all of Europe and the Ancient Empire's into ruin). In my eyes it is Wilhelm alone who carries the biggest part of the guilt for the destruction of Imperial Europe and only one man could have saved it, Rudolf, whereas the tragedy started to unfold years before the war itself: at the wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

As for the above theory, fascinating it is.... I really would love to know if it's true, but it is possible. Bismarck always was one of my 'suspects' but why would the Habsburgs keep it a secret? Where they threatened by Bismarck and Wilhelm(I see him capable of this), did they know nothing at all or had some members of the Habsburg family a part in the tragedy. And why did Mary have to die? Was she an unwanted witness or simply a cover-up and explanation of why Rudolf died.
Learn To Live With My Darker Side

Offline Pezzazz

  • Boyar
  • **
  • Posts: 203
    • View Profile
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #98 on: December 18, 2010, 11:01:49 PM »
I doubt the Habsburg family knew about the Bismarck explanation of Rudolph's death.  Naturally nobody at Mayerling would have wanted to tell them this.  However, I think the Habsburg family finally figured it out since the above Bismarck version is basically the same as that described in "The Mayerling Murders" on which Rudolph's oldest grandchild, Prince Franz Joseph of Windisch-Graetz (1904-1981) collaborated.

Another reason I think the Habsburgs didn't know about this was because too many of them said the "truth" was far worse than the official version of suicide, and a political assassination would not have been worse than a deranged man killing his mistress and then himself.  

Also remember the Taaffe papers were kept secret to protect the Habsburg family according to von Mitis/Taaffe and not to protect the Bismarck family or anyone else.

----------------------------------

I doubt Wilhelm II had anything to do with Rudolph's death.  There was a report of Wilhelm's reaction to Rudolph's death in one of his bios -- and it described him as agitated/upset/confused for hours.   He couldn't understand how it could have happened.  

But remember how the private secretary in "The Last Days of the Archduke Rudolph" said how his friend and double agent Koinoff had proof that Wilhelm II and the Papal Nuncio Galimberti were plotting Rudolph's death (he'd seen a letter he wasn't suppose to see, and also the forgeries of Rudolph's handwriting).  He told Rudolph about it, who just laughed it off.  Wilhelm II probably deliberately put out false rumors of an assassination plot against Rudolph just to annoy him as part of their little personal war games they'd been playing with each other for sometime.  Galimberti was so disconcerted by Rudolph's death that he started his own one-man investigation since he was convinced it was no suicide.  

Wilhelm was young at the time too -- age 30 -- and he was brash and confident enough to think he could beat Rudolph fair and square in public instead.  No, the death of Rudolph as it was done was the end play of an old man with far more attention to detail and experience than that of Wilhelm II.

Bismarck was dismissed by Wilhelm II a little over a year after Mayerling, in March 1890.  Bismarck said he had no idea when Wilhelm first got the idea he wanted to be rid of him, but Bismarck first became aware of it when Wilhelm II accused him of making important decisions on his own behind his back.

« Last Edit: December 18, 2010, 11:04:01 PM by Pezzazz »
If the lessons of history teach us anything it is that nobody learns the lessons that history teaches us.

Offline Pezzazz

  • Boyar
  • **
  • Posts: 203
    • View Profile
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #99 on: December 20, 2010, 12:41:13 PM »
Only a coincidence might be that Wilhelm II dismissed Bismarck on Mar 19, 1890 which would have been Mary Vetsera's 19th birthday.   This takes on rich possibilites considering that Lady Paget in "Embassies of Other Days" wrote that one of the reasons for the bad blood between Rudolph and Wilhelm II was that they were fighting over the same woman.   

-------------------------------------------------

What did Prince Philipp of Coburg, Count Hoyos et.al  tell the Imperial Family about the deaths?  First Hoyos told them that Mary Vetsera had probably poisoned Rudolph, so the Imperial Court decided on an explanation of heart failure/apoplexy as a cause.  Then after the "truth" was more known, Hoyos generously offered to say that he accidentally shot Rudolph in a hunting accident and he was willing to take the blame and leave Austria.  I'm not sure since the court was going to do a cover up anyway, why they just didn't go with one of those possibilities.  The answer is probably along the line of that would have left Rudolph's reputation intact, and that was not the goal.  At some point the Emperor heard the "true story" of what happened at Mayerling -- something that was more awful than anyone could imagine and much worse than the secondary cover up of suicide.

There are several hints available about what this "awful truth" was.  The first comes from Philipp of Coburg's wife, Louise.   They were still married at the time, so it's reasonable to assume she might have heard something about her husband's version although Philipp of Coburg himself never made any statement other than that it was too horrible to discuss.

Here's an excerpt from a 1910 NYT article on what she said happened:

Quote
Imagine the scene of a shooting-box.  After a day of pleasure in the open air, five or six couples are supping by candle light, great lords and beautiful girls.  And the heady wines of Austria and of France have flowed too freely.  The supper has reached the point when it is about to turn into an orgy.  He who is visibly the master of the house is seated opposite a splendid girl.  Suddenly he says:  "It is La Vetsera who has the most beautiful neck!"  Thereupon, they all rise in anger, the girls being jealous and the grands seigneurs excited.

"What do you know about it?" one cries.  "Is it not because La Vetsera is the mistress of an archduke?"  another shouts. 

But he, Lord of them all, does not tolerate contradiction, and besides, his brain is heated with the wine that he has drunk.  He looks imperiously at his beautiful mistress, who is seated opposite him, and gives her this order:  "Show them your neck!"   She cries, "Rudolph, you are mad!  mad!"

The archduke has always been eccentric and now he can no longer control himself.  He leans across the table and tears the corsage down. 

The young woman, thus insulted, also loses her head.  She takes up her glass which is half full, and flings it across the table at the face of her insulter.  The glass is broken and a little blood flows.  The wounded man no longer knows where his is.  He fancies himself on a battlefield, or fighting a duel.  Automatically, he puts his hand to a pocket of his tunic.  He extends his arm over the tablecloth, fires, and La Vetsera falls. 

Who would dare to put the second act of the drama on the stage -- this tumult, this tablecloth swept away, these candles which are being overturned, these girls who rush forward to support a dying woman, these intoxicated revelers who dash upon this unconscious murderer in whom they no longer see anything but a murderer, until the last blow, dealt with a candlestick, crashes into the base of the skull?

Who dealt this blow, this supreme blow, of which the Archduke Rudolf of Austria died?  Everyone and nobody.  The chastisement of the murderer was anonymous, like the whole of the cabaret scene.
 

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9805E6D61730E233A25753C3A9679C946196D6CF

This story covers many of the basics -- it includes the eccentric and mad genes and it sullies the reputation of no one but Rudolph.  It's also believable in that it covers a vicious custom practiced at that time by the Hungarian and Austrian aristocracy which was to disgrace ones mistress in front of boon companions and it is worse than a consensual suicide-love-murder.  However, even this is probably a sanitized version of the real "truth"  told to the Emperor since it doesn't explain the broken down door to the main first floor bedroom, and it doesn't explain the other people who died at Mayerling that night.

It is more likely that Philipp of Coburg and Josel Hoyos told the Emperor something like this:  ~~ Rudolph suddenly without any obvious reason turned stark raving mad and started on a murdering rampage, shooting people at random and kicking down the bedroom door to find people hiding there (similar to that of Prince Dipendra to give it a modern context).   Nobody wanted to hurt Rudolph but someone had to stop him and so grabbed the nearest heavy object, a champagne bottle, and hit him over the head -- but with no intent to kill him~~.   

This explains many of the unexplained events around Mayerling -- for example, why the Emperor told the Grand Duke of Tuscany that Rudolph's death was an accident.   It also explains why the Emperor said:  "My son died like a tailor".  The man who had tried to assassinate Franz Joseph many years before was a tailor and that left a traumatic memory for the Emperor.   So he really meant:  "My son died like an assassin".   



The only thing it doesn't give is a believable motive.


If the lessons of history teach us anything it is that nobody learns the lessons that history teaches us.

Offline Imperial_Grounds

  • Knyaz
  • ****
  • Posts: 579
  • Your Memory Keeps Me Alive
    • View Profile
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #100 on: December 20, 2010, 05:18:22 PM »
but that seems so unbelievable


Would the most enlightened Prince of Europe, the hope of his countries, that of a big portion of the world really be such a dangerous man. Yes, Rudolf had his dark side, believed to be inherited from his widely adored mother - who blamed herself too, but that he would kill his Mistress(even in a fit of rage). It does not sound fit to me. Besides, what with Mizzi's story of Rudolf almost telling her he was going to commit suicide. Was she forced in going along with this game? I can believe many things.... But not that such a thing has happened. And certainly, around that period lots of Deaths were reported, but who's to say that they all died at Mayerling? Yes, Rudolf and Mary did for sure, but why go to such lenghts to hide all those others and not Mary...? Because she was known to be 'the mistress' and they needed a cover-up?

My head goes simply spinning at this.
Learn To Live With My Darker Side

Offline MademoiselleAndrea

  • Knyaz
  • ****
  • Posts: 536
  • Take me as you find me, all my fears and failures.
    • View Profile
    • Past A La Mode: A Presentation and Celebration of Historical Fashion
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #101 on: December 20, 2010, 06:18:12 PM »

Bigger?
Love that drawing of Rudolf following FJ and Sissi. What picture of Rudolf with his mother in Venice? I've never seen it before, as far as I know. Could someone post it please?
When I stand before God at the end of my life, I would hope that I would not have a single bit of talent left, and could say, "I used everything You gave me". --Erma Bombeck

Offline Carolath Habsburg

  • Velikye Knyaz
  • ****
  • Posts: 4809
  • As seen on TUMBLR!
    • View Profile
    • Victorian & edwardian roleplay in spanish!
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #102 on: December 20, 2010, 07:31:41 PM »
Use  the right button of your mouse, option "open image in another tab/page" and you will see it bigger.

Courtesy of Grand Duchess Ally

"...Пусть он землю бережет родную, А любовь Катюша сбережет....". Grand Duchess Ekaterina Fyodorovna to Grand Duke Georgiy Alexandrovich. 1914

Join the cause "We want an Ignore button

Offline Yelena Aleksandrovna

  • Velikye Knyaz
  • ****
  • Posts: 3730
    • View Profile
    • *Glitter Of The Past*
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #103 on: December 22, 2010, 02:14:10 PM »
Beautiful paintings of rudolph and Mary Vetsera

Offline MademoiselleAndrea

  • Knyaz
  • ****
  • Posts: 536
  • Take me as you find me, all my fears and failures.
    • View Profile
    • Past A La Mode: A Presentation and Celebration of Historical Fashion
Re: Crown Prince Rudolph--controversies, affairs & his death, Part II
« Reply #104 on: December 22, 2010, 07:08:11 PM »
I thought Mary Vestera was blond...
When I stand before God at the end of my life, I would hope that I would not have a single bit of talent left, and could say, "I used everything You gave me". --Erma Bombeck