Author Topic: Emperor Nicholas I  (Read 35603 times)

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Offline Helen_Azar

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Emperor Nicholas I
« on: February 11, 2005, 08:38:22 PM »
I don't know a lot about this particular Romanov, but I just read on of the Romanov websites that some  historians believe that Nicholas I poisoned himself after receiving news of the defeat of Russian forces at Evpatoria. It sounds a little strange and I was wondering if anyone knows anything about this. Thanks!

Offline Olga

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #1 on: February 11, 2005, 10:08:18 PM »
I've heard that as well.

bluetoria

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #2 on: February 12, 2005, 08:17:51 AM »
Charlotte Zeepvat writes:
"Officially death came as a result of influenza, but some said an argument with the Tsarevich over the conduct of the war had produced a fit of rage, causing a massive stroke. Suicide has been suggested and others argue that Nicholas simply died of a broken heart."
Well, there's a few causes to choose from!

Offline Helen_Azar

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #3 on: February 12, 2005, 08:37:57 AM »
Wow, it's hard to believe that no one really knows for sure what happened! This is not something that seems to be publicized a lot.... It does put a somewhat different spin on things, doesn't it... Could it have been a homocide? It sounds like the cause of death was so ambiguous that anything is possible, although there doesn't really seem to be a motive for homocide. But just him being a Tsar (and a relatively ruthless one too) could be motive enough for many...

Offline Mike

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #4 on: February 12, 2005, 12:04:21 PM »
It seems very likely that Nicholas I decided to put an end to his life by consciously refusing to observe the regime and to take the medicines prescribed by his doctors after he was diagnosed with pneumonia. Probably he would die in any case, but he did everything possible - short of taking poison, which would be a mortal sin for a devote Christian - to "aid the nature".
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by Mike »

Offline Belochka

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #5 on: February 28, 2005, 11:09:22 PM »
According to my Russian language Encyclopedia of the Russian Monarchy (2003), and a few other related sources:

... Nikolai I's strength was severely tested when the Austrians had turned against him. He also became deeply concerned about the health of the Empress in late 1854. Not surprisingly, it was a combination of personal factors which dealt Nikolai a heavy burden to face.  

Therefore it is not inconceivable that his ensuing depression would cause his immune response to become compromised to such a degree that when he caught a cold, we was unwilling to fight on.

On 22 August 1855, Anna Tiutcheva (a maid-of-honor) noted that when she saw the Emperor in Church, she was struck by the immense transformation that occurred in him during the last few days.

"He looked depressed; suffering covered his face  with wrinkles ... At the sight of his prayer with a painful and concentrated look one could not help feeling a reverential and mournful compassion to this height of magnificence and might, humiliated and downcast in the face of God."

Two days before his death, in February 1855, his physician, Dr Mandt, appeared unconcerned about Nikolai's condition, because there were so many cases of the cold in SPb's cold and damp climate. Twelve hours later he succumbed.

The coincidence of his early demise and the Crimean defeat would surely lead to rumors that Nikolai was unable to face a shameful defeat, and therefore prefered to poison himself.

Considered to be a despot by his enemies, the rumor of a cowardly death would be hold more appeal than the real truth of his painful death.  
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by Belochka »


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Offline Helen_Azar

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #6 on: March 01, 2005, 08:49:01 AM »
Yes, that would make sense.

Offline Elisabeth

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #7 on: March 02, 2005, 02:26:37 PM »
Quote
Considered to be a despot by his enemies, the rumor of a cowardly death would be hold more appeal than the real truth of his painful death.  


I don't know, I think Russian historians like Eidelman viewed Nicholas's possible suicide more in the Roman tradition than in the Christian one - i.e., Nicholas I was if nothing else a Stoic, whose life was given over to duty to his motherland; therefore, if he died a suicide, it was the death of an honorable man (in the Roman sense: because he admitted responsibility for the dishonor of Russia's defeat in the Crimean War, he killed himself). Warrior cultures understand this notion of dishonor and salvaging honor through suicide (not just the Romans, but the Japanese). In other words, not all so-called "Soviet" historians took a "Soviet" view of Nicholas' possible suicide. (Many of them like Eidelman were in fact dissidents...)
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by Elisabeth »
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Offline Belochka

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #8 on: March 03, 2005, 09:45:56 PM »
Quote

I don't know, I think Russian historians like Eidelman viewed Nicholas's possible suicide more in the Roman tradition than in the Christian one - i.e., Nicholas I was if nothing else a Stoic, whose life was given over to duty to his motherland; therefore, if he died a suicide, it was the death of an honorable man (in the Roman sense: because he admitted responsibility for the dishonor of Russia's defeat in the Crimean War, he killed himself). Warrior cultures understand this notion of dishonor and salvaging honor through suicide (not just the Romans, but the Japanese). In other words, not all so-called "Soviet" historians took a "Soviet" view of Nicholas' possible suicide. (Many of them like Eidelman were in fact dissidents...)


Suicide is not an honorable gesture in the Russian Orthodox sense, more so if it is the Emperor of Russia. As the ecclesiastic head of the Church, it was imperative he lead by pious example. Suicide is condemned by the Orthodox Church. To contemplate otherwise would dishonor the Russian State, the people of Russia and the Church.

Had he survived it would have been his duty to show the empire that military defeat can be overcome. The negativity of suicide would be seen as overt act of weekness and stupidity. Traits which Nikolai did not possess.

Why is it so difficult to believe that the poor man died from pneumonia? >:(
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by Belochka »


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Offline RomanovFan

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #9 on: June 22, 2005, 03:11:27 PM »
What kind of ruler was he? Who did he marry and who were his kids? How many? ???
~LESLIE~

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Offline Alexander_II

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #10 on: June 25, 2005, 10:57:09 AM »
Nicholas married Alexandra Fedorovna nee Princess Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia.  They had seven children in all.  The eldest, Alexander, would eventually become Alexander II, Konstantin, would play an improtant part in the naval reforms of the 1850s and the Great Reforms a decade later.  Of Nicholas's three daughters, the eldest, the blonde and blue eyed Maria, would become Duchess of Leuchtenberg, the black haired Olga, Queen of Wurttemberg but the youngest, Alexandra, who possessed considerable musical talent, would die only a year after marrying the Prince of Hesse-Cassel.  Later, Nicholas and Alexandra Fedorovna had two more sons: Nikolai, who would later become the Russian commander-in-chief in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-8, and Mikhail, later Inspector-General of the Russian artillery.

Nicholas I was regarded as the most handsome monarch in Europe.  During his lifetime, many Russians admired him some even venerated him while others saw him as the personification of oppression.  Anyone who lived during his reign could not remain indifferent to the force  of his personality and the complex system which he imposed upon his country.

Suggest you read Nicholas I, Emperor & Autocrat of all the Russias by W. Bruce Lincoln.

Offline RomanovFan

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #11 on: June 27, 2005, 11:02:17 PM »
I'll keep an eye out for that book.... books about Russian Royalty are hard to come by anymore...Thanks for the info. :)
~LESLIE~

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David_Pritchard

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #12 on: June 28, 2005, 12:42:57 AM »
Nicholas I was an interesting character.

According to some accounts he slept on cot with a  leater matress stuffed with straw.

He designed in detail a prison in Chita for some of the Decemberists down to the placement of the stoves and windows to ensure that they would always be chilled in the winter and hot in the summer.

In order to have impressive troops on the parade grounds of Saint Petersburg, he spent large sums of money on new uniforms for the Imperial Guard rather than buy rifles for the entire army. This decision came back to haunt him during the Crimean War, when Russian troops were using Napoleonic era muskets against the English, French, Sardinians and the Turks with more modern arms.

The Moscow to Saint Petersburg rail line was constructed at great cost and loss of human life because Nicholas I drew a straight line between the cities on a map and said put the railroad here. No account was taken of the topography, rivers, hills, marshes etc.

He invaded Hungary and put down a popular rebellion against the Habsburgs, not because he liked the Habsburgs but because he found revolution objectionable.

He was definitely Emperor Paul's son.

DAP

Offline Alexander_II

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #13 on: June 28, 2005, 09:44:42 AM »
He was indeed a drill master like his father but it should be noted that Nicholas by nature was a perfectionist with severe fixed principles of duty and order.  On the morning of his accession, Nicholas said, "Even if I shall be Emperor for only one hour I shall show myself worthy of the honour".  His opposition to rebellion of any kind was for the most part a paranoia installed in all reigning monarchs after the turbulent events of the French revolution, the proceeding Napoleonic era and the revolutionary insurgence of the 1830s and in 1848.  He saw it as a matter of honour to fulfill his contractural agreements with Austria and Prussia and he did not hesitate to send his armies to restore what he considered to be the established order in Western Europe earning him the name of the gendarme of Europe.

In so far as the railway story goes it should be clarified that the Austrian engineer Franz Anton Ritter von Gerstner constructed the railway at considerable cost to Russia.  Estimates for building the Moscow-St Petersburg line in 1842 were approximately 43,000,000 roubles, being more than a quarter of the entire annual state revenues at the time.  The project took nearly a decade!  It was however Nicholas's lack of energetic rail development that was seen as Russias major downfall in the Crimean War.

Nicholas's close involvement in the proceedings against the Decembrists was seen as a great violation of the principles of legality and as a consequence led to many untruthful stories to be attributed to him.  He was however as a person also very generous and charitable.  In fact, the Minister of the Imperial Household, Prince Volkonsky is recorded for having ordered that Nicholas's valet not put any money into the Emperors pockets before he went out because he would give it all away to whatever unfortunate he might encounter.  

Offline Paul

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Re: Emperor Nicholas I
« Reply #14 on: June 29, 2005, 11:19:14 PM »
Quote
What kind of ruler was he? Who did he marry and who were his kids? How many? ???


Nicholas I married:


Pss Charlotte of Prussia (*13.7.1798 +20.10.R/1.11.1860) who took the name Alexandra Feodorovna. her brother later became Kaiser Wilhem I

Their children:


1.Czar ALEXANDER II *Moscow 29.4.1818 +assassinated at St.Petersburg 13.3.1881

2.Gr Duke Constantine *St.Petersburg 21.9.1827 +Pavlovsk 29.1.1892
m.St.Petersburg 11.9.1848 Pss Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg (*Altenburg 8.7.1830, +St.Petersburg 6.7.1911)

3.Gr Duke Nicholai *Tsarskoie Selo 8.8.1831 +Alupka, Crimea 25.4.1891
m.St.Petersburg 6.2.1856 Dss Alexandra of Oldenburg (*St.Petersburg 2.6.1838 +Kiev 25.4.1900)

4. Gr Duke Michael *Peterhof 13R/25.10.1832 +Cannes 5R/18.12.1909
m.St.Petersburg 28.8.1857 Pss Cecile of Baden who took the name Olga Feodorovna (*20.9.1839 +12.4.1891)

5.Gr Dss Maria *Pavlovsk 18.8.1819 +St.Petersburg 21.2.1876
1m: St.Petersburg 14.7.1839 Maximilian de Beauharnais, Duke von Leuchtenberg (*2.10.1817 +1.11.1852);
2m: St.Petersburg 16.11.1856 Ct Grigori Strogonov (*18.6.1824 +13.3.1879)

6.Gr Dss Olga *St.Petersburg 11.9.1822, +Friedrichshafen 30.10.1892
m.Peterhof 13.7.1846 King Karl I of Württemberg (*6.3.1823 +6.10.1891)

7.Gr Dss Alexandra *St.Petersburg 24.6.1825, +Tsarskoe Selo 10.8.1844
m.St.Petersburg 28.1.1844 Friedrich Wilhelm, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (*Kassel 26.11.1820, +Frankfurt 14.10.1884)
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