Author Topic: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars  (Read 26551 times)

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Offline BobG

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Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
« Reply #30 on: November 24, 2008, 08:04:09 AM »
Joanna,
I think there's something wrong with your link.  Like your post in the Valet thread, I'm unable to open this one as well.
Bob

Offline Cathy

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Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
« Reply #31 on: November 24, 2008, 10:28:15 AM »
It's OK now - I think the site may have had a problem but it is up now.

Offline Joanna

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Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
« Reply #32 on: December 23, 2009, 05:52:55 PM »
A detailed study on the horse cemetery at the Pensioners Stables in Tsarskoe Selo:

Fig 1 - Plan of AP Park with location of Pensioners Stables
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_01.gif

Fig 2 - Plan of the horse cemetery and surrounding buildings
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_02.gif

Fig 3 - General plan of the horse cemetery
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_03.gif

Fig 4 - Horse Grave #64
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_04.gif

Fig 5 - Skeleton of horse Grave #64
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_05.gif

Fig 6 - Fragment of gravestone of the gelding Crimea
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_06.gif

Archaeological research equine cemetery at Tsarskoe Selo. (1998-2000 gg.)

The program of scientific cooperation with the State Museum-Reserve "Tsar's Village", as well as in connection with the preparation of complex pensioner's stables "to the restoration, the expedition of the Institute of History of Material Culture of Russia Academy of Sciences for three field seasons (1998-2000) conducted a study on identify planning equine cemetery. Program of archaeological works has been agreed with management, scientific and engineering departments of the Museum-Reserve "Tsarskoe Selo".

Complex "pensioner's stables is located in Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin), on the northern outskirts of the Alexander Park, approximately 1 km to the NW of the Alexander Palace on Fermskoe road. In the modern topographic map of the memorial complex is marked as cattle cemetery (Fig. 1).

According to the archives, "pensioner's stables" were established by decree of Emperor Nicholas I in 1826 for the old horses "of his own saddle Their Majesties." Building stables built by architect A. Menelaws in 1827 in the Alexander Park. Later in the stables were arranged cemetery for the burial of dead horses. In the first half of XX century the territory of the cemetery came into ruin, and was substantially damaged during construction on its territory outbuildings.

In planning and carrying out archaeological work took into account the results of previous studies the cemetery, conducted by VA Korentsvitom in 1984 and the results of "full-scale study of a pensioner lay the horse cemetery, carried out in 1997, EA Turov.

Archaeological work was carried out under the supervision and with the assistance of the chief architect of the museum-reserve "Tsarskoe Selo" AA Kedrinsky, Deputy Director for Science IK Bott and researcher archive reserve museum EA Turov.

In the course of the work to identify the layout of the cemetery were conducted clearing tracks and parts of the cemetery, damaged during construction on its territory in different years of outbuildings, as well as the tomb of 64, significantly damaged as a result of grubbing of perennial trees.

All leveling notes taken from the zero mark, which was used as the upper point of the cap building pensioner's stables at the south side of the triangular bay window overlooking the east (Fig. 2).

When fixing and describing the singularities of the numbering plan of the cemetery was used and the terminology adopted in previous studies and reflected in the report EA Turov. All cases making the necessary changes and additions to previously accepted numbering and terminology accompanied by appropriate explanations.

In general, it allows to reconcile these data with results of previous studies.

Tomb 64 is located in the sixth "complete" series, at its northwestern end. To the south-east of it was the tomb of 65, to the north-east - the tomb of 52, to the east - the tomb of 53, to the south-south-west - the grave 74 (Fig. 3). Gravestones and grave pit were badly damaged by years of tearing up the oak. Given the magnitude of damage that threaten the safety of a tomb, it was decided to demolish a portion preserved in order to identify the nature of the basic structural elements of gravestones and burial pits, and to obtain data required for scientific and accurate restoration of the monument.

Investigation of the preserved part of the burial was carried out in layers, taking into account construction horizons (Fig. 5). During the clearing remnants of the original (original) design gravestones and identified key elements of design gravestones that had been erected during the reconstruction of the cemetery in the years 1874-1882. under the direction of the architect AF Species.

The upper tier of gravestones (Fig. 5, plan 1), which was placed withdrawn by the time the excavation gravestone with the inscription, was built of sawn stone (limestone light yellow / Pudozh stone / Putilov cooker) blocks whose size varies considerably . The largest of them reached about 70 cm in length, 50 cm in width and 30 cm in thickness. The most carefully were processed by those blocks, which formed the outer side of the gravestones and the surface on which was placed gravestone.

(cont'd)
Joanna

Offline Joanna

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Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
« Reply #33 on: December 23, 2009, 05:54:03 PM »
(cont'd)

Four blocks and part of the filling between them are preserved in situ. Two corner blocks south-western end have been fastened wrought iron staple length of 23 cm with a square cross section 2 x 2 cm Roll-formed at right angles to the ends of the staples were inserted in a specially carved into rounded blocks enhance diameter of 3 cm and a depth of 4 cm Judging by similar openings in the Eastern bloc, in the same manner were stitched and blocks the north-east end installations. The space between the blocks filled with debris of bricks, and filled with lime mortar. At one of the brick rubble traces letters labeling.

The stone blocks and zabutovka on lime mortar between them were laid on a relatively regular brickwork in lime mortar (Fig. 5, a plan 2). In the clutch, except for two integers, use large pieces of brick. One of the bricks on the entire north-eastern end of construction was located over the remains of a wooden chopping block width 11 cm, leaves in a northeasterly direction to the grave 52. At one of the brick rubble found the remains of labeling in the form of a letter E.

The brickwork was laid on the laying of rubble limestone slabs of various sizes and shapes, bonded with lime mortar. North-western part of the masonry was damaged when stubbing. Laying of bricks and tiles to match the size and orientation (Fig. 5, Plan 3) and include the time of reconstruction of the cemetery in the years 1874-1882.

Clear lower layer is also built of different sizes Putilov plates, only partially coincide with the boundaries of the three upper layers of the structure. The bulk of this building was located almost on the horizon of 1 m to the west and south of the overlying layers of brick and limestone. In its orientation there is a significant deviation to the north-west orientation of the gravestones of the cemetery renovation period (Fig. 5: Wed plans 3 and 4). This important observation, together with other direct and indirect data indicates a change in the reconstruction of the original general orientation of the cemetery gravestones, as well as the layout of the cemetery.

Under the slab of the third layer was opened layer, consisting of fragments of relatively thin slabs of medium size, length does not exceed 35 cm These plates were located only in the south-western half of gravestones. It is obvious that with their help aligns the horizontal plates of the third layer, built in this part of the two layers (Fig. 5: Wed plans 4 and 5).

The fourth layer is composed mainly of large fragments of plates, was also intended as the third and practically not been violated when stubbing (Fig. 5, plan 6). At the base of the north-eastern part of the construction horizon recorded 3 granite boulder with a diameter of 20 cm, relating to the fifth layer (Fig. 5: Wed plans 6 and 7). Carefully arranged large plates (up to 0,5 m) of the fifth layer adhered to the above stones. On the southwestern end of recorded fragments of tiles and stones of smaller size (Fig. 5, level 7).

Below the fifth was placed sixth layer, and a neatly folded from large limestone blocks (Fig. 5, Plan 8). In the south-western and north-eastern ends of the buildings are fragments of tiles and stones of smaller size, lying, as it turned out, the face parts of two wooden block, positions along the grave with a small offset to the south-east of its central axis. At this level the first time managed to trace the boundaries of the burial pits except in the disturbed northern corner and part of the south-eastern wall. Along the walls of the pit occasionally stones were small. After dismantling of the sixth layer was opened on the lowest structural part of gravestones provided by two longitudinal block, lying crosswise on two of the same cross block. The ends of the transverse scaffold were placed in a specially dug for them, 4-step niche in the north-western and south-eastern edges of the hole (Fig. 5, Plan 9). The space between the longitudinal block, particularly in places where they intersect with the transverse, was filled with fragments of slabs to align a flat surface for the plates of the sixth layer. Stones and fragments of plates were placed in several locations under both longitudinal and a transverse block. On the upper surface of the longitudinal block, located closer to the north-western edge of the grave was discovered 5 round-penetrating holes with a diameter of 3 cm, clearly intended for wooden studs. This points to re-use of this block, probably taken when disassembling a building. The second longitudinal block, rectangular in cross section, apparently also used a second time. Knotty rounded in cross-section diameter of 16-19 cm transverse chopping block had no visible signs of handling and is the main element of the bearing structure (Fig. 5, Plan 9). The length of the longitudinal scaffold - 2,60-2,65 m, the width of the north-western chopping block - 25-30 cm, south-east - 16-17 cm, thickness of both about 15 cm total length of the transverse scaffold, peaked within the excavation 2 25 and 2.55 pm, remained unknown, because their ends left in the south-eastern edge of excavation, partially under construction gravestones graves 65.

A rectangular grave pit size of 2,95 x 1,70-1,80 m had a rough south-eastern wall of the niche and 4-step for mounting the block overlap (Fig. 5, Plan 10). The surviving better than any other niche of the western corner of the grave was rectangular in form measuring 33 x 25 cm Nishi was admitted to the level of the buried soil to a depth of 0.5 m. The depth of the burial pits of the level of the buried soil was about 1.1 m. The pit is filled with yellow mainland-blue clay, which rarely met stones (Fig. 5, 11).

At the bottom of the pit lay the skeleton of a horse on the left side, head to the NE, face the east. The front legs bent at the knees horse almost at a right angle, rear extended. Horse skull was 30 cm higher than the lower pelvic bones (Fig. 5, Plan 10; Fig. 6). The bottom of the burial pits in the south-western part, apparently, was initially slightly deepened to accommodate more voluminous posterior half of the horse.

No accompanying equipment or items reins at the burial of horses were found.

(cont'd)
Joanna

Offline Joanna

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Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
« Reply #34 on: December 23, 2009, 05:54:48 PM »
(cont'd)

When disassembling gravestones between 3 and 4 construction horizons was found smooth brass buttons about 2 cm in diameter.

During the clearing of the burial pit burial 64 was detected sequence of burials were affiliated to the grave 64. In the north-eastern part of the 64 graves were discovered the remains of a wooden chopping block, of course, related to the gravestones graves of 52 - the extreme north-west burial in the fifth "complete" series. North-eastern part of the chopping block went under the original slab gravestones graves 52, the orientation of which deviates to the north-west and differs from the orientation of the upper blocks of the reconstruction period of the cemetery. Gravestones period of reconstruction of burial 52 is shifted by 80 cm to the north-east and 45 cm to the northwest relative to the original. Thus, the initial orientation of the graves of 52 and 64 coincide and differ significantly from the orientation of gravestones period of reconstruction of the cemetery. South-western end of the chopping block floors covered the graves of 52 north-eastern edge of the graves of 64 and, in turn, was blocked by the reconstructed part of the gravestones graves of 64, indicating that the later construction of the tomb 64 in relation to the grave 52. Obtained in the course of excavation data in general confirm the findings of AA Kedrinsky (Explanatory note to the project brief for the restoration of the ensemble Pensionernyh stables in the park in the Alexander Pushkin. 3-6) and followed by the EA Turova (Report 1997 pp. 5-6) on the construction of graves 52, 64, 65 prior to the restoration of gravestones. If the identification of the graves of 65 (1870, Ceres) and 52 (1863g.) is true, then not identified the tomb of 64 should relate to the period between 1870 and 1863 years.
However, stratigraphic observations made during the clearing of the graves of 64 and single finds in various parts of the cemetery contradict the results of the preliminary identification of some tombs of the cemetery.

Among the discovered in a cemetery 323 bits of marble tombstones with fragments of inscriptions, among the graves 14 and 15, was found a fragment of a marble slab, indicating 1828 or 1829 (the latter figure has been preserved only in the upper part). This finding may indicate that the commission of graves in the cemetery would begin in the late 20-ies, ie, before 1831, as generally believed.

The need for additional archival research to accurately identify the graves of the cemetery is indicated by finds from the gravestones preserved nicknames horses: Crimea (Fig. 7) and Djigit. Chip plate with the inscription "Merin sry Krym sluzhil Emperor ..." was found among the graves 96 and 97, and plate with the nickname Djigit - found near the gravestones of burial 100, which apparently belongs. However, according to a preliminary identification of burials, 8, 9 and 10 rows of graves are no horses with nicknames Crimea and Jiggs, that could mean the need to revise the identification of a large number of burials. In the western corner of the cemetery were found fragments of two plates with inscriptions.

On another plate of the retention of the following signs:

Empress Mary Feodorovna
Ck 1889 to 1891 god
fell 16th October
1909 "

Both fragment plates were removed from the original places of their location and damaged by construction on the southern section of the cemetery foundry.

During the inspection of the cemetery and clean up some of its sites, except for fragments of the tombstones were discovered the following items:

Bronze with traces of gilding decorations overhead doors Feodor Cathedral (attribution AA Kedrinsky) (3 fragment).

Iron horseshoe (6 pcs.).

Iron and bronze fastenings (pyrones) marble gravestones (7 pcs.).

Fragments made of crushed marble, ornamented floor stables.

Fragment of a cast iron lamp-tops (the portal?) Column.

In the course of archaeological raschistok and an overall plan for the cemetery have been several refinements to the location of tracks and the organization of the space between the gravestones (fig. 3, 5). So the first longitudinal track width 1,65-1,70 m, limiting the cemetery from the north-west, had a marked deviation to the north compared with the orientation of the longitudinal paths, restricting it to the south-east. Moreover, it is in the same direction were oriented original gravestones graves 52, 53, 64, 65. This indicates that this is the only track that has kept the original (before reconstruction), the orientation of the cemetery. After the eighth "complete" series, at the intersection with the eighth transverse track north-western path deviates somewhat to the west from its original orientation. The second longitudinal track begins between graves 1 and 2 and is parallel to the direction of the north-west track of every extreme northwestern dumping "complete" series, forming a bent ledges at 2, 5 and 7 "full" lines (Fig. 3). This track ended at the intersection with the transverse track for the tenth number. The third longitudinal track started from the second "complete" series between the graves of 17 and 18 and was in a southwesterly direction until the intersection with the transverse path of the eight "complete" next to the graves 86 and 87. It is almost straight, expanded in the second, third and fourth "complete" series to a width of 1,25 m and narrows to 80-85 cm in all other ranks. Fourth, the south-eastern longitudinal track width 1,30-1,50 pm-oriented as well as all the restored gravestones. Despite the devastation of the eastern and southern corners, we can assume that the total length of this track is almost 30 meters. In addition, the longitudinal track was decorated and the passage between the graves of 23 and 24 of the second "complete" series. From the south-east, the fourth to the longitudinal tracks to the north-west came to the intersection with the first ten longitudinal cross paths. First, the north-east track width of 1,80 m, is located behind the first row of graves and refers to the initial period of formation of the cemetery. On it there are 2 gravestones graves 11 and 12 of the first "incomplete" series.

http://spbae.ru/trifonov_2003.htm

Joanna
« Last Edit: December 23, 2009, 05:56:28 PM by Joanna »

Offline Joanna

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Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
« Reply #35 on: July 13, 2016, 04:19:38 PM »
In Petra H. Kleinpenning’s book ‘The Correspondence of the Empress Alexandra of Russia with Ernst Ludwig and Eleonore Grand Duke and Duchess of Hesse’, Alexandra wrote on 10/22 July 1895 “… About the Sign of Kyss [?] - & Jung Selma [?]; - Nicky has several new riding horses …”

Were they the names of Nicholas II’s horses? I didn’t find new information on the Horse Cemetery in Tsarskoe Selo.

But I did discover aerials!

An aerial photograph of the Pensioners Stable and Horse Cemetery:
https://i.ytimg.com/vi/juxxR1XL2-k/maxresdefault.jpg

And my favorite! An aerial video:
https://youtu.be/juxxR1XL2-k

Joanna

Offline Sanochka

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Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
« Reply #36 on: August 08, 2016, 01:55:02 PM »
Awesome, Joanna!  This certainly helps put the location of the cemetery in perspective.

In the video, from 1:00 on, there is an animal running along the dirt road from the back of the cemetery to the brick building. It must be a large dog I imagine is frightened by the helicopter [?} flying directly above.   :)

Offline Ena

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Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
« Reply #37 on: August 08, 2016, 10:36:09 PM »
Thanks for the video.  It's amazing and gives such a great perspective of everything.  I love aerial views of Tsarskoe Selo.   

I've been to the horse cemetery.  The first time, it was covered knee deep in snow, so it was difficult to tell if I was in the right area. I ventured out a few months later, when there wasn't as much snow, and found it, but the tombs were still covered in snow.  Though you could make out that it was the graves.  That dog was there, barking at me and some guy came out to see what the commotion was all about.  He gave me a cross look then shook his head no when I motioned if it was okay to come inside. 
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Offline Joanna

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Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
« Reply #38 on: August 09, 2016, 04:20:07 PM »
I do love aerials also!

There are many dogs within the parks at Tsarskoe Selo running around. A little scary.

Joanna