Author Topic: Documents from the Reigns of Peter I through Nicholas II  (Read 61295 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Nikolai II
« Reply #30 on: January 18, 2006, 03:00:24 PM »
Anglo-Russian Agreement Concerning Persia, 1907

The Governments of Great Britain and Russia having mutually engaged to respect the integrity and independence of Persia, and sincerely desiring the preservation of order throughout that country and its peaceful development, as well as the permanent establishment of equal advantages for the trade and industry of all other nations;

Considering that each of them has, for geographical and economic reasons, a special interest in the maintenance of peace and order in certain provinces of Persia adjoining, or in the neighbourhood of, the Russian frontier on the one hand, and the frontiers of Afghanistan and Baluchistan on the other hand; and being desirous of avoiding all cause of conflict between their respective interests in the above-mentioned provinces of Persia;

Have agreed on the following terms:

Article I

Great Britain engages not to seek for herself, and not to support in favour of British subjects, or in favour of the subjects of third Powers, any Concessions of a political or commercial nature/emdash such as Concessions for railways, banks, telegraphs, roads, transport, insurance, etc. - beyond a line starting from Kasr-i-Shirin, passing through Isfahan, Yezd, Kakhk, and ending at a point on the Persian frontier at the intersection of the Russian and Afghan frontiers, and not to oppose, directly or indirectly, demands for similar Concessions in this region which are supported by the Russian Government.

It is understood that the above-mentioned places are included in the region in which Great Britain engages not to seek the Concessions referred to.

Article II

Russia, on her part, engages not to seek for herself and not to support, in favour of Russian subjects, or in favour of the subjects of third Powers, any Concessions of a political or commercial nature - such as Concessions for railways, banks, telegraphs, roads, transport, insurance, etc. - beyond a line going from the Afghan frontier by way of Gazik, Birjand, Kerman, and ending at Bunder Abbas, and not to oppose, directly or indirectly, demands for similar Concessions in this region which are supported by the British Government.

It is understood that the above-mentioned places are included in the region in which Russia engages not to seek the Concessions referred to.

Article III

Russia, on her part, engages not to oppose, without previous arrangement with Great Britain, the grant of any Concessions whatever to British subjects in the regions of Persia situated between the lines mentioned in Articles I and II.

Great Britain undertakes a similar engagement as regards the grant of Concessions to Russian subjects in the same regions of Persia.

All Concessions existing at present in the regions indicated in Articles I and II and maintained.

Article IV

It is understood that the revenues of all the Persian customs, with the exception of those of Farsistan and of the Persian Gulf, revenues guaranteeing the amortization and the interest of the loans concluded by the Government of the Shah with the "Banque d'escompte et des Prits de Perse" up to the date of the signature of the present Agreement, shall be devoted to the same purpose as in the past.

It is equally understood that the revenues of the Persian customs of Farsistan and of the Persian Gulf, as well as those of the fisheries on the Persian shore of the Caspian Sea and those of the Posts and telegraphs, shall be devoted, as in the past, to the service of the loans concluded by the Government of the Shah with the Imperial Bank of Persia up to the date of the signature of the present Agreement.

Article V

In the event of irregularities occurring in the amortization or payment of interest of the Persian loans concluded with the "Banque d'escompte et des Prits de Perse" and with the Imperial Bank of Persia up to the date of the signature of the present Agreement, and in the event of the necessity arising for Russia to establish control over the sources of revenue guaranteeing the regular service of the loans concluded with the first-named bank, and situated in the region mentioned in Article II of the present Agreement, or for Great Britain to establish control over the sources of revenue guaranteeing the regular service of the loans concluded with the second-named bank, and situated in the region mentioned in Article I of the present Agreement, the British and Russian Governments undertake to enter beforehand into a friendly exchange of ideas with a view to determine, in agreement with each other, the measures of control in question and to avoid all interference which would not be in conformity with the principles governing the present Agreement.

Source: Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers, London, 1908, Vol CXXV, Cmd. 3750.


David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Aleksander II
« Reply #31 on: January 18, 2006, 03:03:28 PM »
Franco-Russian Military Convention, 18 August 1892

Preamble

France and Russia, being animated by a common desire to preserve peace, and having no other object than to meet the necessities of a defensive war, provoked by an attack of the forces of the Triple Alliance against either of them, have agreed upon the following provisions:

Article 1

If France is attacked by Germany, or by Italy supported by Germany, Russia shall employ all her available forces to attack Germany.

If Russia is attacked by Germany, or by Austria supported by Germany, France shall employ all her available forces to attack Germany.

Article 2

In case the forces of the Triple Alliance, or of any one of the Powers belonging to it, should be mobilized, France and Russia, at the first news of this event and without previous agreement being necessary, shall mobilize immediately and simultaneously the whole of their forces, and shall transport them as far as possible to their frontiers.

Article 3

The available forces to be employed against Germany shall be, on the part of France, 1,300,000 men, on the part of Russia, 700,000 or 800,000 men.

These forces shall engage to the full with such speed that Germany will have to fight simultaneously on the East and on the West.

Article 4

The General Staffs of the Armies of the two countries shall cooperate with each other at all times in the preparation and facilitation of the execution of the measures mentioned above.

They shall communicate with each other, while there is still peace, all information relative to the armies of the Triple Alliance which is already in their possession or shall come into their possession.

Ways and means of corresponding in time of war shall be studied and worked out in advance.

Article 5

France and Russia shall not conclude peace separately.

Article 6

The present Convention shall have the same duration as the Triple Alliance.

Article 7

All the clauses enumerated above shall be kept absolutely secret.

Signature of the Minister:
General Aide-de-Camp:
General of Division:
Chief of the General Staff:
Councillor of State:

Signed: OBRUCHEFF
(Sub-Chief of the General Staff of the Army)

Signed: BOISDEFFRE

David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Nikolai II
« Reply #32 on: January 18, 2006, 03:07:00 PM »
Report on the Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive by Grand Duke Nicholas, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, 3 June 1915

Petrograd, June 3rd

As Przemysl, in view of the state of its artillery and its works, which were destroyed by the Austrians before their capitulation, was recognized as incapable of defending itself, its maintenance in our hands only served our purpose until such time as our possession of positions surrounding the town on the northwest facilitated our operations on the San.

The enemy having captured Jaroslav and Radymno and begun to spread along the right bank of the river, the maintenance of these positions forced our troops to fight on an unequal and very difficult front, increasing it by thirty-five versts [Note: about twenty-four miles], and subjecting the troops occupying these positions to the concentrated fire of the enemy's numerous guns.

Przemysl was bombarded with heavy guns up to 16-inch calibre, and the enemy delivered his principal attack against the north front in the region of Forts 10 and 11, which the Austrians had almost completely demolished before the surrender of the fortress.

When we repulsed these attacks the enemy succeeded in taking several of our guns, which had bombarded the enemy's columns until the latter were close to the muzzles, and the last shell was spent.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923


David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Nikolai II
« Reply #33 on: January 18, 2006, 03:09:46 PM »
Letter from Emperor Nikolai II to Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaievich

5 September 1915

At the beginning of the war I was unavoidably prevented from following the inclination of my soul to put myself at the head of the army.  That was why I entrusted you with the Commandership-in-Chief of all the land and sea forces.

Under the eyes of the whole of Russia your Imperial Highness has given proof during the war of steadfast bravery which caused a feeling of profound confidence, and called forth the sincere good wishes of all who followed your operations through the inevitable vicissitudes of fortune of war.

My duty to my country, which has been entrusted to me by God, impels me to-day, when the enemy has penetrated into the interior of the Empire, to take the supreme command of the active forces and to share with my army the fatigues of war, and to safeguard with it Russian soil from the attempts of the enemy.

The ways of Providence are inscrutable, but my duty and my desire determine me in my resolution for the good of the State.

The invasion of the enemy on the Western front necessitates the greatest possible concentration of the civil and military authorities, as well as the unification of the command in the field, and has turned our attention from the southern front.

At this moment I recognize the necessity of your assistance and counsels on our southern front, and I appoint you Viceroy of the Caucasus and Commander-in-Chief of the valiant Caucasian Army.

I express to your Imperial Highness my profound gratitude and that of the country for your labours during the war.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923


David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Nikolai II
« Reply #34 on: January 18, 2006, 03:12:09 PM »
Ukaz of Abdication of Nikolai II

In the days of the great struggle against the foreign enemies, who for nearly three years have tried to enslave our fatherland, the Lord God has been pleased to send down on Russia a new heavy trial.

Internal popular disturbances threaten to have a disastrous effect on the future conduct of this persistent war.  The destiny of Russia, the honour of our heroic army, the welfare of the people and the whole future of our dear fatherland demand that the war should be brought to a victorious conclusion whatever the cost.

The cruel enemy is making his last efforts, and already the hour approaches when our glorious army together with our gallant allies will crush him.  In these decisive days in the life of Russia, We thought it Our duty of conscience to facilitate for Our people the closest union possible and a consolidation of all national forces for the speedy attainment of victory.

In agreement with the Imperial Duma We have thought it well to renounce the Throne of the Russian Empire and to lay down the supreme power.  As We do not wish to part from Our beloved son, We transmit the succession to Our brother, the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, and give Him Our blessing to mount the Throne of the Russian Empire.

We direct Our brother to conduct the affairs of state in full and inviolable union with the representatives of the people in the legislative bodies on those principles which will be established by them, and on which He will take an inviolable oath.

In the name of Our dearly beloved homeland, We call on Our faithful sons of the fatherland to fulfil their sacred duty to the fatherland, to obey the Tsar in the heavy moment of national trials, and to help Him, together with the representatives of the people, to guide the Russian Empire on the road to victory, welfare, and glory.

May the Lord God help Russia!

(SIGNED)

NICHOLAS II

(COUNTER-SIGNED)

FREDERICKS, MINISTER OF THE IMPERIAL COURT


David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Nikolai II
« Reply #35 on: January 18, 2006, 03:14:28 PM »
Grand Duke Mikhail Aleksandrovich's Refusal to Accept the Russian Throne

A heavy burden has been laid on me by my brother's will in transferring to me the imperial throne of All Russia at a time of unprecedented war and unrest among the people.

Inspired by the thought common to the whole nation, that the well-being of our homeland comes above all, I have taken the hard decision to accept supreme power only in the event that it shall be the will of our great people, who in nationwide voting must elect their representatives to a Constituent Assembly, establish a new form of government and new fundamental laws for the Russian State.

Therefore, calling on God's blessing, I ask all citizens of the Russian State to obey the provisional government which has been formed and been invested with complete power on the initiative of the State Duma, until a Constituent Assembly, to be convened in the shortest possible time on the basis of general, direct, equal, secret ballot, expresses the will of the people in its decision on a form of government.

(SIGNED)

MIKHAIL
3/III - 1917, Petrograd.

David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Aleksander II
« Reply #36 on: January 18, 2006, 03:19:11 PM »
1891. The Collection of Decrees of the Grand Duchy of Finland. Nr 13.

(To be announced from the pulpit.)

To the Governor-General of Finland.

When you, following my command, declared on 8/20th of January this year the Diet of the Estates of Finland opened, the Land Marshall and the Speakers of the Estates have at the same time as they expressed the feelings of their loyal allegiance, considered it to be their duty to let me know about the anxiety aroused in the land by certain measures taken, in accordance with my prescriptions, to bring about a closer union of the Grand Duchy with other parts of the Russian Empire.

My incessant care about the welfare of Finland and her internal progress as well as a multitude of manifestations about my benevolence and trust in her population do not justify this kind of state of mood in the land.

It is only by a false conception about the basis on the relation of the Grand Duchy to the Empire and to the Supreme Authority, and by dissemination of these fallacies among the population, harmful to its true interests, that such a deplorable interpretation might have been presented.

Finland, which from the beginning of the present century, and partly even earlier, has belonged to the Russian Empire and has been subject to her rule, received, by the will of the ever-lamented Emperor Alexander I, a specific structure for her internal administration and a most gracious assurance of the preservation of her rights, privilegies, religion and fundamental laws. His August Successors have also confirmed this assurance.

These rights and privilegies of the land, particularly the ecclestiastical order and laws not only retain their force for the present but they have in many aspects further developed to meet the changing needs of the population of Finland. Thus the lot of Finland under the Russian sceptre has proved that her union with Russia has not prevented the free development of her local institutions, and the prosperity gained by Finland is an indisputable proof that this union suits to her own interests. The lack of uniformity between some Finnish statutes and all-Empire acts, as well as the deficient accuracy in the rules concerning the relation of the Grand Duchy to the Empire unfortunately instigate wrong impressions about the real meaning of the measures taken to achieve aims which are common to all parts of the Russian Empire. I hope however, that the common sense of the Finnish people will disperse this fallacy and the proper understanding of its own interests will make it to devote herself to further strengthening of the bonds that unite Finland to Russia.

I will entrust you on My behalf let it be known to My loyal subjects in Finland that I will show to the Finnish people the same benevolence, care and trust as earlier, and I will preserve intact the rights and privileges granted to it by the Russian Sovereigns, and that I have no intentions to alter the basis on which the internal administration of the land has been laid.

I have confidence in the allegiant feelings of all the Estates presented by the Land Marshal and the Speakers of the Diet. I will heartily thank you for them and I expect, justified by the devotion of Finland's population to Me, a unanimous cooperation in fulfilling of My plans to strengthen the political bond between the Grand Duchy and the Empire.

A L E X A N D E R
                             
In St. Petersburg, on the 28th of February 1891.

Translated from the official Finnish document by Pauli Kruhse.

David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Nikolai II
« Reply #37 on: January 18, 2006, 05:00:53 PM »
1910. The Collection of Decrees of the Grand Duchy of Finland. Nr 45.

On the original document His Imperial Majesty has signed with his own High hand: "To be as herein". In Baltischport, aboard the yacht "Standart", on the 17th of June, 1910.  Countersigned: State Secretary Makaroff.

The Act passed by the State Council and the State Duma concerning the procedure to be complied with issuing laws and decrees of all-Empire significance for Finland.

I. In explaining, amending, supplementing and annulling the statutes herewith including those issued in accordance with the legislative procedure of the Grand Duchy of Finland (Code of Law, Vol. 1, part 1, Fundamental Laws, edition of the year 1906, article 2) the following is enacted:

1. Laws and decrees whose operation extends to the Grand Duchy of Finland will be issued:
1) in order laid down by general legislation if they relate not only to solely internal affairs of this land,
2) in the order laid down by special legislation (Fundamental Laws, edition of 1906, article 2), if they relate only to solely internal affairs of this land.

2. Besides the Imperial Fundamental Laws and other laws and decrees promulgated in the general order of legislation and whose operation has extended to Finland before the present Act, as well as statutes amending and supplementing the same, the laws and decrees indicated in article 1 section 1 will include Acts and decrees ruling on
1) Finland's contribution to State Expenditure and the institution therefore of levies and taxes;
2) obligation of Finland's population to serve in the military and other obligations serving for military needs;
3) rights in Finland of Russian subjects who are not citizens of Finland;
4) the employment in Finland of the Empire's language;
5) principles for Finland's administration by special institutions, based on the special legislation (Fundamental Laws, edition of 1906, article 2);
6) rights and duties of imperial institutions and authorities and their order of action in Finland;
7) the execution in Finland of sentences and verdicts of courts of law in other parts of the Empire, requirements by authorities therefrom and agreements and covenants there entered into
8) establishing exemptions necessary for all-Empire interests in the Finnish Penal Code and the Legal Proceedings Act;
9) securing the all-Empire interests in the matter of drawing up the educational curriculums and in supervising teaching;
10) ordinances concerning public meetings, societies and associations;
11) rights and conditions of working in Finland of companies and societies established in other parts of the Empire and abroad;
12) legislation for the press in Finland and the import of printed matter from abroad;
13) the Finnish Customs Office and the customs tariff;
14) protection in Finland of industrial and trademarks and patents, as also the literary and artistic copyrights;
15) the monetary system of Finland;
16) the post office, telephone, aerial navigation and other similar means of communication in Finland;
17) the Finnish railways and other transportation for needs of the Empire's defence, as also the connections between Finland and the other parts of the Empire together with international traffic; the railway telegraph;
18) merchant navigation in Finland together with pilot and lighthouse authorities;
19) rights in Finland of foreigners.


David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Nikolai II
« Reply #38 on: January 18, 2006, 05:06:59 PM »
The Act passed by the State Council and the State Duma concerning the procedure to be complied with issuing laws and decrees of all-Empire significance for Finland. (Part II)

3. Alterations and additions to the list of laws and decrees contained in the 2nd article will be initiated solely by the Emperor in the order of general legislation.

4. Legislative initiative in subjects mentioned in the sections 1-19 of the 2nd article belongs solely to His Imperial Majesty.
5. A request for a conclusion from the Imperial Senate of Finland should be submitted by the appropriate Minister or by the Chief Executive of the concerned department through the assistance of the Governor-General of Finland when preparing bills, drafted by Ministers and Departemental Executive Officers, for subjects listed in the sections 1-19 of the 2nd article and in the 3rd article, before the Bill is submitted to the Council of Ministers. The delivery to the Imperial Finnish Senate, on matters concerning Finland and drafted by Ministers and Departemental Executive Officers, other than those indicated in the 2nd article, is left to the consideration of the Council of Ministers and is then done in the same order.
Ministers and Departemental Executive Officers are authorized, when delivering matters to the Imperial Senate of Finland for its conclusions, to fix a time limit; if no answer is received in due time, the subject takes its further course without the said conclusions.
The conclusions of the Imperial Senate of Finland are communicated to the appropriate Minister or Departemental Executive Officer by the Governor-General of Finland.
6. Motions initiated by the Governor-General of Finland and the Imperial Finnish Senate for Bills and decrees mentioned in the article 1 section 1 are brought before the Council of Ministers by the Governor-General.

7. The Council of Ministers is obliged to ask for a conclusion of the Finnish Diet on Bills listed in sections 1-19 of article 2 or in article 3 and affecting jurisdiction of the Finnish Diet or having an impact on local Finnish Acts that have passed through the Diet, before they are submitted to the State Duma. Whether a conclusion of the Finnish Diet should be asked concerning other Bills, mentioned in article 2 and 3 and concerning Finland, depends on the Council of Ministers and should be made before submitting such Bills to the State Duma.
By virtue of a resolution of the State Duma, a request for conclusion can referred to the Diet on Bills affecting Finland (art. 2 and 3) and on which no conclusion was previously requested by the Council of Ministers. This request can only be made before the law is adopted in the State Duma's plenum.
The Bills to be referred to the Diet for its conclusions by the resolutions of the Council of Ministers or of the State Duma, will be communicated to the Diet by the Chairman of the State Council through the Governor-General of Finland. The Diet's conclusions on bills introduced to it are made in the course of same, ordinary or extra-ordinary session in which they were introduced to it, unless this happens later that two months before the closing of the session; in that case, the conclusions are made in the next ordinary or extra-ordinary session. These conclusions along with all appropriate supplementary matter will be communicated in Russian through the Governor-General of Finland to the Chairman of the State Council for forwarding them as required. If no conclusion follows in due time, the Bill will be processed without such conclusion.

8. Promulgations of Acts and Decrees mentioned in article 1 section 1, done by the Governing Senate in due and confirmed process, will be regarded as their promulgations also in Finland.
The Governor-General of Finland will take all appropriate measures needed for translating these Acts and decrees into Finnish and Swedish and for their announcements to the local population.

9. The Governing Senate will, in accordance with the general rule, exercise the highest supervision in controlling that the Acts and decrees mentioned in the article 1 section 1 will be properly executed, explained and impressed on people's minds and it will also resolve all possible differences of opinions and uncertainties. The Governor-General of Finland, for his part, should take all measures necessary in Finland for ascertaining the proper execution of orders by the Governing Senate.

10. Acts and decrees enacted in accordance to the general order of legislation (article 1 section 1) will automatically abrogate all statutes of Finnish Acts and decrees, given in accordance with the special procedure (article 1 section 2), which are contradictory to them. They enjoy full authority over all contradictory statutes in local Acts and decrees.

11. Acts and decrees enacted in accordance with the special procedure (article 1 section 2) cannot annul, change or complete, make ineffective or explain Acts and decrees enacted according in the general order (article 1 section 1).

II.
The State Council and the State Duma will admit representatives for the population of the Grand Duchy of Finland who are to be elected in accordance with the Directive given to the State Council and in accordance with the Electoral Decree for the State Duma but with the following changes and additions:

A. About the State Council Elections.

1. The Finnish Diet elects to the State Council for a period of three years two members from those who are eligible to the Diet and who also comply with requirements by the articles 2 and 3 below.
Detailed regulations for the procedure to be observed when electing members to the State Council are drawn up by the Diet.

2. Persons who in the Grand Duchy of Finland are not eligible to the State Council, include, in addition to those mentioned in the article 20 of the Directive for the State Council (Code of Laws, volume 1, part 2 edition of 1906 and in its Supplement of 1908): 1) persons sentenced in the court of law for a crime which according to the local Penal Code is punishable by a term in a penitentiary or by deprivation of confidence as a citizen or by becoming unworthy for public service, when not acquitted by sentence of a court of law, even though they after pronouncing the sentence, could have been relieved of the penalty because of limitation or in virtue of Imperial Grace or because of a special Gracious Rescript; 2) persons who by the decision of a court of law in the Grand Duchy are removed from their offices, for the space of three years from the moment of such removal, even though they could have been relieved of the penalty because of limitation or in virtue of Imperial Grace or because of a special Gracious Rescript; and 3) persons who are indicted for crimes indicated in section 1 of the current article or for crimes punishable by removal from office.

David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Nikolai II
« Reply #39 on: January 18, 2006, 05:09:20 PM »
The Act passed by the State Council and the State Duma concerning the procedure to be complied with issuing laws and decrees of all-Empire significance for Finland. (Part III)

3. No person without a command of Russian is eligible as a member of the State Council.

4. The electoral proceedings of the Diet (art. 1), as also protests of misconducts in the elections and the Speaker's explanations to these protests are presented, not later than a month after the elections, in Russian to the Governor-General of Finland, who will expedite them in due process to those concerned (the Directive for the State Council, 1906 edition, art. 22).

B. About the State Duma Elections.

1. The population of the Grand Duchy of Finland will be represented in the State Duma by four members.
2. The members of the State Duma representing the population of the Grand Duchy of Finland will be elected by the Finnish Diet among the persons who are eligible in the parliamentary elections and who otherwise satisfy the requirements indicated below in the articles 3 and 4.
Detailed instructions for the procedure to be observed when electing members to the State Duma are drawn up by the Diet.
3. Persons who in the Grand Duchy of Finland are not eligible to the State Duma, include, in addition to those mentioned in the articles 9-11 of the Decree for elections of the State Duma (Code of Laws volume 1 part 2, 1907 edition): 1) persons sentenced in the court of law for a crime which according to the local Penal Code is punishable by a term in a penitentiary or by deprivation of confidence as a citizen or by becoming unworthy for public service, when not acquitted by sentence of a court of law, even though they after pronouncing the sentence, could have been relieved of the penalty because of limitation or in virtue of Imperial Grace or because of a special Gracious Rescript; 2) persons who by the decision of a court of law in the Grand Duchy are removed from their offices, for the space of three years from the moment of such removal, even though they could have been relieved of the penalty because of limitation or in virtue of Imperial Grace or because of a special Gracious Rescript; and 3) persons who are indicted for crimes indicated in the section 1 of the current article or for crimes punishable by removal from office.

4. No person without a command of Russian is eligible as a member of the State Duma.

5. The electoral proceedings of the Diet (art. 2), as also protests of misconducts in the elections and the Speaker's explanations to these protests are presented, not later than a month after the elections, in Russian to the Governor-General of Finland, who presents the list of persons elected to the State Duma to the Governing Senate for publication for the general information, and forwards the electoral proceedings, protests and explanations to the State Duma.

III. The expenditure caused by remitting the appropriate daily allowances and travelling expenses to members elected from the population of the Grand Duchy of Finland to the State Council and to the State Duma (the Directive for the State Council, 1906 edition, art. 28; the Directive for the State Duma, 1908 edition, art. 23), will be debited from the State Treasury and will be reimbursed with equivalent sum from the Finnish Crown revenues.

Signed: Chairman of the State Council M. Akimoff.

Published in the Collection of governmental statutes and regulations on the 21th of June (4th of July) 1910 Nr. 100 printed by the Governing Senate.

Translated from the official Finnish version by Pauli Kruhse. Translation later cross-checked with the book "Finland. Its place in the Russian state" by Lt. Gen. M. Borodkin, Chief of the Alexander Academy of Military Jurisprudence. St. Petersburg, 1911 (Translated from Russian)

David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Nikolai II
« Reply #40 on: January 18, 2006, 05:13:37 PM »
1899. The Collection of Decrees of the Grand Duchy of Finland. Nr 28.

Conscription Act of the Grand Duchy of Finland

(To be announced from the pulpit.)

To the Governor-General of Finland. When you on the 18th of May declared the extraordinary Diet ended, the representatives of the Estates informed me about the feeling of anxiety brought to them by the forthcoming change of conscription in the Grand Duchy of Finland and the promulgation of the Manifesto given on the 3rd of February.
To my great sorrow, I observe of the addresses by the land marshal and the speakers of the Estates that the Estates have not been responsive to the perspectives for the common benefit of the Empire which have made these measures unavoidable, and thus have taken a role of expressing improper criticism about them. I order to you make it publicly known that the said criticism is wrong and is inconsistent with the fact, that Finland is part of the Russian Empire, thereof inseparable.

I also will, that the people of Finland is aware that when I ascended the Throne I assumed as my holy duty to take care of the well-being of all the peoples under Russian Sovereignty, and I also desired to preserve in Finland the distinct form of her internal legislation granted to the country by My High Forefathers. In addition to this I have, as a heritage from the past, undertaken the charge of explaining by means of legislation the relation between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire. To accomplish this, I have confirmed the Fundamental Rules given on the 3rd of February which describe the procedure to be followed when issuing general laws within the Empire which also are applicable in Finland. The work of the extraordinary Diet should be continued and the preparation of the final form of the conscription act should be done in accordance to the specific procedure expressed in this law, which itself will stand unfaltered now and in the future.

I expect you to work tirelessly, in demonstrating to the people of the country the true meaning of the measures taken to strengthen the bond between the Empire and the Grand Duchy, and I hope that the obedient allegiance of the Finnish people, about which I have no doubts, will be manifestated in deeds and will bring you assistance in fulfilling My orders.

N I C H O L A S.

The Gracious Rescript above has been delivered on 8/20th of June 1899 to the Office of the State Secretary for Finland.

Translated from the official Finnish document by Pauli Kruhse.

The Constitutional Conflict in Finland, an article by a member of the Finnish Diet in The North American Review, August, 1899. Russian view in July 1899 on the same subject. (Cornell University Library)

David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Nikolai II
« Reply #41 on: January 18, 2006, 05:18:56 PM »
1899. The Collection of Decrees of the Grand Duchy of Finland. No 3.

(To be announced from the pulpit.)

The Gracious Manifesto of the Imperial Majesty given in St. Petersburg, on the 3/15th of February 1899.

We NICHOLAS The Second, by the grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, Tsar of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland etc. etc. etc. make it known to all our loyal subjects: The Grand Duchy of Finland which since the beginning of the present century has formed an integral part of the Russian Empire, enjoys, with the generous consent of the ever-lamented Emperor Alexander the Blessed and His Lofty Successors, particular institutions adapted to the local circumstances of the land, for her internal administration and legislation.

But apart from the local legislative needs in Finland deriving from the characteristic social structure of the land, the administration of the Empire brings forth also other legislative questions concerning Finland, which because of their close association to the general interests of the Empire, cannot be exclusively treated by the institutions of the Grand Duchy. On the manner in which questions of this kind are to be decided, the existing legislation contains no definitive provisions, and this absence has resulted in significant inconveniences.

To remove these obstacles We have seen it, in constant consideration for the welfare of all Our loyal subjects without any bias, advantageous for the completion of existing decrees and to be complied with by the appropriate institutions of the Empire and of the Grand Duchy, to lay down a firm and unshaken procedure to be followed in preparation and enacting of generally applicable laws within the Empire.

While We preserve in force and effect the present provisions concerning the enactment of such local decrees which extend exclusively to the needs of Finland, We have deemed it necessary to reserve for Our discretion the exact definition of subjects for the general legislation of the Empire.

In order to accomplish this We have under Our Own Supreme Hand sanctioned the hereby proclaimed Fundamental Rules to be complied with regarding formulation, examination and promulgation of laws, which are passed for the Empire, the Grand Duchy of Finland therein included.

Like Our Ancestors bearing the Imperial Crown We see this closest union with the Empire as a guarantee for Finland's prosperity. Sheltered by the Russian supremacy and strong through her protection, Finland in the course of nearly a whole century has advanced uncessingly in the path of peaceful development, and it has been a great pleasure to Us to find, from the loyalty allegiances lately received from the Estates, that there lives in the hearts of the Finnish people the consciousness of devotion to Us and to Russia.

We are confident that the cooperation between the institutions of the Empire and the Grand Duchy of Finland, based on the firm rules of law in the legislative matters concerning their mutual interests, will serve to the better security of the real advantage and benefit of the Russian Empire.

Given in St. Petersburg on the 3rd day of April in the year eighteen hundred ninety nine from the birth of Christ and in the fifth year of Our reign.

The signature below has been written by The Imperial Majesty with His Own Supreme Hand: "NICHOLAS."

       The copy affirmed by:
                  Chairman of the State Council  "MIKAEL."

             Countersigned:  State Secretary of the State Council  P. Haritonoff.
       
                                               Copy.

     At the text above the Imperial Majesty has under His Supreme own hand written:
                                                      "To be as herein".

St. Petersburg, on the 3rd of February 1899.

         Chairman of the State Council  "MIKAEL."

Fundamental Rules to be complied with in the formulation, examination and promulgation of laws given for the Empire, the Grand Duchy of Finland hereto included.
1) The measures to introduce a law for the Empire, the Grand Duchy of Finland therein included, can be undertaken, after receiving for each occasion a Gracious assent, in the cases where the general course of administrative affairs makes it necessary to prepare a new decree, or a change or the amendment in the existing law.
2) This procedure is to be followed for both those laws relating to the whole extent of the Empire, the Grand Duchy of Finland therein included, and also for such laws which are confined to the Grand Duchy, if they affect the general interests of the Empire or are associated with the imperial legislation.

3) The motion for a Gracious assent to introduce a bill (1st and 2nd clause) is proposed by the competent Imperial Minister and the Minister State Secretary for Finland, after consulting with each other. When the Governor-General of Finland deems it necessary, for the needs of administration in the Grand Duchy, to complete the existing laws in compliance with these rules, then he shall, for their further preparation, communicate his proposals on the matter to the competent Imperial Minister and to the Minister State Secretary for Finland.

4) When a Gracious assent to introduce a bill for the Empire, the Grand Duchy of Finland therein included, is received, the Imperial Minister enters into communication with the Governor-General of Finland, the Minister State Secretary for Finland and the Imperial Senate of Finland requesting their opinions about the contents of the said bill.

5) As far as concerns those bills which according to the internal administrative procedure of the Grand Duchy of Finland are submitted to the Finnish Diet, a written statement from the Diet is also required in issuing the laws mentioned in the clause 2 of these Rules. The statement of the Diet is to be formulated at the next ordinary assembly unless there is a Gracious order to summon the Diet to an extraordinary assembly.

6) After the receipt of the opinion of the Governor-General of Finland, of the Minister State Secretary for Finland, and of the Imperial Senate of Finland, and when required (clause 5), of the Finnish Diet, the Imperial Minister submits the bill to the State Council following the procedure stated in the Regulations of the State Council. The copies of the statements of the Senate and the Diet are enclosed with the proposals.

7) This bill is examined by the State Council according to the general procedure, and with the participation of the Governor-General of Finland, of the Minister State Secretary for Finland, and also of those Senators of the Imperial Senate of Finland who are particularly called upon by the Gracious selection.

8) The most Graciously confirmed decision of the State Council concerning the above bill is promulgated as ordered both in the Empire and in the Grand Duchy of Finland.

       Chairman of the State Council (signed)  "Mikael".


The copy affirmed by:
State Secretary of the State Council   P. Haritonoff.

Translated from the official Finnish document by Pauli Kruhse.

David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Aleksander I
« Reply #42 on: January 18, 2006, 05:24:46 PM »
Treaty of Peace between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Sweden, 1809. Part I

Nous CHARLES par la Grace de Dieu Roi de Suède, des Goths et des Vandales &c. &c. &c. Heritier de Norvège, Duc de Schlesvig Hollstein, de Stormarie et de Ditmarsen, Comte d'Oldenbourg et de Delmenhorst &c. &c. Savoir saisons: Que Nous et Notre Très cher Frère et Cousin le Sérénissime et très Puissant Prince et Seigneur ALEXANDRE I:r, Empereur et Autocrateur de toutes les Russies, de Moscovie, Kiowie, Wladimirie, Novogorod, Czar de Cazan, Czar d'Astracan, Czar de Siberie, Czar de la Chersonèse Taurique, Seigneur de Plescou, et Grand-Duc de Smolensko, Lithuanie, Volhynie, Podolie et de Finlande, Duc d'Estonie, de Livonie, de Courlande et Semigalle, de Samogitie, Carelie, Twer, Jugorie, Permie, Viatka, Bolgarie et d'autres: Seigneur et Grand-Duc de Novogorod inférieur, de Czernigovie, Resan, Polozk, Rostow, Jaroslaw, Belo-Osorie, Udorie, Obdorie, Condinie, Witepsk, Mstislaw, Dominateur de tout le Côté du Nord, Seigneur d' Iverie, de Cartalinie, Grusinie et de Cabardinie, Prince Héréditaire et Souverain des Princes de Czircassie, Gorsky et autres; Héritier de Norvège, Duc de Slesvic Hollstein, de Stormarie et de Ditmarsen, Comte d'Oldenbourg et de Delmenhorst &c. &c., animés réciproquement de dispositions pacifiques, ayant résolu par une paix ferme, sûre, et durable, non seulement de mettre une fin desirée à la guerre qui s'est élevée entre Nous, Notre Royaume et Sujets d'un côté et Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies, Son Empire et Sujets de l'autre, mais aussi de consolider pour l'avenir une heureuse tranquillité, bon voisinage et confiance entre Nous, Nos Etats et Sujets, et ayant à cet effet nommé des deux Côtés des Plénipotentiaires, lesquels en vertu de Nos pleinpouvoirs respectifs, ont été autorisés d'arrêter, conclure et figner une paix ferme et durable; Savoir de Notre Part Nos Amés et Féaux, Monsieur COURT LOUIS BOGISLAS CHRISTOPHE Baron DE STEDINGK, UN des Seigneurs de Notre Royaume, Général d'Infanterie dans Nos Armées, Chevalier et Commandeur de Nos Ordres, Chevalier Grand Croix de Notre Ordre de l'Epée, Chevalier des Ordres Impériaux de Russie, de S:t André, de S:t Alexandre Newsky et de S:te Anne de la première Classe, et le Sieur ANDRé FREDERIC DE SKJÖLDEBRAND, Général-Major dans Nos Armées et Commandeur de Notre Ordre de l'Epée, et de la part de Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies, Monsieur le Comte NICOLAS DE ROMANZOFF, Son Conseiller Privé Actuel, Membre du Conseil d'Etat, Ministre des Affaires Etrangères, Ministre du Commerce, Sénateur, Chambellan Actuel, Chevalier des Ordres de S:t André, de S:t Alexandre Newsky, Grand Croix de celui de S:t Wladimir et de S:te Anne des premières Classes, Grand Aigle de la Légion d'Honneur de France, Chevalier des Ordres Royaux de Prusse, de l'Aigle Noir et de l'Aigle Rouge et de celui d'Hollande de l'Union, et le Sieur DAVID D'ALOPEUS, Son Chambellan Actuel, Chevalier Grand Croix de l'Ordre de S:t Wladimir de la Seconde Classe et de S:te Anne de la Première; les dits Plénipotentiaires se sont rendus sur le lieu convenu, savoir dans la Ville de Fredricshamn, où, après avoir échangé leurs Pleinpouvoirs respectifs, reconnus en bonne et dûe forme, ils ont convenu, conclu, figné et scellé, le Dix Sept du Mois de Septembre passé, un Traité de Paix entre Nous et le Royaume de Suède, d'une part, et Sa Majesté l'Empereur et l'Empire de Russie de l'autre, ainsi qu'il se trouve ci-après mot à mot inseré.

Au Nom de la Très-Sainte et Indivisîble Trinité.

Sa Majesté le Roi de Suède et Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies également animés du désir de faire succeder les avantages de la paix aux calamités de la guerre, et de rétablir l'union et la bonne intelligence entre Leurs Etats, ont nommé à cet effet pour Leurs Plénipotentiaires, savoir: Sa Majesté le Roi de Suède, Monsieur le Baron COURT LOUIS BOGISLAS CHRISTOPHE DE STEDINGK, un des Seigneurs du Royaume de Suède, Général d'Infanterie de Ses Armées, Chevalier et Commandeur de Ses Ordres Chevalier Grand Croix de l'Ordre de l'Epée, Chevalier de l'Ordre de S:t André, de S:t Alexandre Newsky et de S:te Anne de la première Classe, et Monsieur ANDRé FREDERIC DE SKJÖLDEBRAND, Colonel et Commandeur de Son Ordre de l'Epée.
Et Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies, Monsieur le Comte NICOLAS DE ROMANZOFF, Son Conseiller privé Actuel, Membre du Conseil d'Etat, Ministre des Affaires Etrangères, Ministre du Commerce, Sénateur, Chambellan actuel, Chevalier des Ordres de S:t André, de S:t Alexandre Newsky, Grand'Croix de celui de S:t Wladimir et de S:te Anne des premières Classes, Grand Aigle de la Legion d'Honneur de France, Chevalier des Ordres Royaux de Prusse, de l'Aigle Noir et de l'Aigle Rouge et de celui de Hollande de l'Union, et Monsieur DAVID D'ALOPEUS, Son Chambellan actuel, Chevalier Grand'Croix de l'Ordre de S:t Wladimir de la seconde Classe et de S:te Anne de la première; lesquels après l'échange de Leurs Pleinpouvoirs respectifs trouvés en bonne et dûe forme, sont convenus des Articles suivans:


ART. I.

Il y aura à l'avenir paix, amitié et bonne intelligence entre Sa Majesté le Roi de Suède et Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies. Les Hautes Parties Contractantes apporteront la plus grande attention à maintenir une parfaite harmonie entre Elles, Leurs Etats et Sujets, et éviteront soigneusement tout ce qui pourroit atterer à l'avenir l'union heureusement rétablie.

ART. II.

Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies ayant manifesté la resolution invariable de ne point séparer Ses intérêts de ceux de Ses alliés, et Sa Majesté Suédoise, désirant de donner, en faveur de Ses Sujets, au bénefice de la paix toute l'étendue possible, Elle promet et s'engage de la manière la plus formelle et la plus obligatoire, de ne rien négliger de ce qui, de Son côté, peut conduire à la prompte conclusion de la paix entre Elle et Sa Majesté l'Empereur des Francais, Roi d'Italie, et Sa Majesté le Roi de Dannemarc et de Norvège, au moyen des négociations directes déjà entamées avec ces Puissances.

ART. III.

Sa Majesté le Roi de Suède pour donner une preuve évidente de Son désir de renouer les relations les plus intimes avec les Augustes Alliés de Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies, promet d'adhérer au Système Continental avec des modifications, qui seront plus particulièrement stipulées dans la négociation, qui va s'ouvrir entre la Suède, la France et le Dannemarc.
En attendant Sa Majesté Suédoise s'engage, dès l'échange des ratifications du présent Traité, a ordonner que l'entrée des ports du Royaume de Suède soit fermée tant aux Vaisseaux de guerre, qu'aux bâtimens marchands de la Grande Bretagne, en se réservant l'importation du Sel et des productions Coloniales, devenues par l'usage nécessaires aux habitants de la Suède.
De Son côté Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies promet d'avance, de consentir à toutes les modifications que Ses Alliés jugeront justes et convenables d'admettre, en faveur de la Suède, rélativement au commerce et à la navigation marchande.

ART. IV.

Sa Majesté le Roi de Suède tant pour Elle que pour Ses Successeurs au Thrône et au Royaume de Suède rénonce irrévocablement et à perpétuité, en faveur de Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies et de Ses successeurs au Thrône et à l'Empire de Russie, à tous Ses drois et titres sur les Gouvernemens ci-après spécifiés, qui ont été conquis par les armes de Sa Majesté Impériale dans la présente guerre sur la Couronne de Suède, savoir les Gouvernemens de Kymenegård, de Nyland et Tavastehus, d'Åbo et Björneborg avec les isles d'Åland, de Savolax et Carelia, de Wasa, d'Uleåborg et de la partie de Vestrobothnie jusqu'à la rivière de Torneå, comme il sera fixé dans l'article svivant sur la démarcation des frontières.
Ces Gouvernemens avec tous les habitans, villes, ports, forteresses, villages et îles, ainsi que les dépendances, prérogatives, droits et émolumens, appartiendront désormais en toute proprieté et Souveraineté à l'Empire de Russie, et Lui restent incorporés.
Pour cet effet Sa Majesté le Roi de Suède promet et S'engage de la manière la plus solemnelle et la plus obligatoire tant pour Elle que pour Ses Successeurs et pour tout le Royaume de Suède, de ne jamais former aucune prétention directe ou indirecte sur les dits Gouvernemens, Provinces, Iles et Territoires, dont tous les Habitans seront, en vertu de la dite rénonciation, dégagés de l'hommage et Serment de fidelité, qu'ils ont prêté à la Couronne de Suède.

ART. V.

La Mer d'Aland, (Ålands Haf) le Golphe de Bothnie et les Rivières de Torneå et de Muonio, formeront dorénavant la frontière entre l'Empire de Russie et le Royaume de Suède.
À distance égale des côtes les Iles les plus rapprochées de la terre ferme d'Åland et de la Finlande appartiendront à la Russie, et à la Suède celles qui avoisinent ses côtes.
À l'embouchure de la Rivière de Torneå l'Ile de Björkön, le port de Reutehamn et la Presqu'île, sur laquelle est située la Ville de Torneå seront les points les plus avancés des possessions Russes, et la frontière se prolongera de long de la rivière de Torneå jusqu'au confluent des deux branches de ce fleuve près de la Forge de Kengis, d'où elle suivra le cours du fleuve Muonio en passant devant Muonioniska, Muonio Öfreby, Palojoens, Kultane, Enontekis. Kelottijerfvi, Paitiko, Nuimaka, Raunula et Kilpisjaure, jusqu'à la Norvège.
Dans le cours des rivières de Torneå et de Muonio, tel qu'il vient d'être désigné, les Iles situées à l'Est du Thalweg appartiendront à la Russie, et celles à l'Ouest du Thalweg à la Suède. D'abord après l'échange des Ratifications on nommera des Ingénieurs de part et d'autre, qui se rendront sur les lieux pour établir les limites le long des rivières de Torneå et de Muonio sur la ligne tracée ci-dessus.

David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Aleksander I
« Reply #43 on: January 18, 2006, 05:27:27 PM »
Treaty of Peace between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Sweden, 1809. Part II


ART. VI.

Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies ayant donné déjà les preuves les plus manifestes de la clémence et de la justice, avec lesquélles Sa Majesté à résolû de gouverner les habitans des pays qu'Elle vient d'acquerir, en les assurant génereusement et d'un mouvement spontané du libre exercise de leur réligion, de leurs droits de proprieté et de leurs privilèges, Sa Majesté Suédoise Se voit par là dispensée de devoir d'ailleurs sacré, de faire des réservations là-dessus en faveur de Ses anciens Sujets.

ART. VII.

Aussitot après la signature du présent Traité on en transmettra immédiatement et avec célerité l'avis aux Géneraux des Armées respectives et les hostilités cesseront entièrement de part et d'autre tant sur terre que sur mer. Celles qui se seroient commises dans l'intervalle seront considerées comme non avenues et ne pourront porter aucune atteinte à ce Traité. On se réstituera fidellement tout ce qui pourroit avoir été pris et conquis entre tems de part et d'autre.

ART. VIII.

Dans les quatre semaines qui suivront l'échange des ratifications du présent Traité, les trouppes de Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russiès auront évacué la province de Vestrobothnie et répassé la rivière de Torneå.
Il ne sera pendant les dites quatre semaines fait aux habitans aucune réquisition de quelque nature que ce soit, et l'Armée Russe tirera son entretien et ses subsistances de ses propres magasins établis dans les villes de la Vestrobothnie.
Si pendant la durée des négociations les Trouppes Impériales avaient pénétré de quelque autre côté dans le Royaume de Suède, elles évacueront les contrées occupées aux termes et conditions ci-dessus stipulées.

ART. IX.

Tous les Prisonniers de guerre faits de part et d'autre tant par terre que par mer, et les ôtages enlevés ou donnés pendant la guerre, seront restitués en masse et sans rançon aussitôt que possible, mais au plus tard dans trois mois à compter du jour de l'échange des ratifications du présent Traité, mais si quelques prisonniers ou ôtages se trouvent empêchés par maladie ou autres raisons valables de retourner dans leur patrie dans l'espace du tems fixé, ils ne seront pas censés par là avoir aucunement perdû le droit stipulé ci-dessus. Ils seront obligés d'acquitter ou de donner caution pour les dettes qu'ils auroient contractées pendant leur captivité, avec des habitans du pays, où ils ont été détenus.
On renoncera réciproquement aux avances, qui auront été faites par les Hautes Parties Contractantes pour la subsistance et l'entretien de ces prisonniers, et il sera pourvû respectivement à leur subsistance et fraix de voyage jusqu'à la frontière des deux Etats, où des Commissaires de leurs Souverains seront chargés de les recevoir.
Les Soldats et Matelôts Finlandois sont de la part de Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies exeptés de cette réstitution, sauf les capitulations qui ont eû lieu, si elles leur accordent un droit contraire, et du nombre des prisonniers, les Militaires en grade et autres Employés natifs de la Finlande qui voudroient y rester, jouiront de cette liberté et de toute la plénitude de leurs droits sur les biens, créances et effets qu'ils pourroient avoir actuellement et à l'avenir dans le Royaume de Suède sur le pied de l'article X. du presént Traité.

ART. X.

Les Finlandois qui se trouvent actuellement en Suède, ainsi que les Suédois qui se trouvent en Finlande auront pleine liberté de retourner dans leurs Patries et de disposer de leurs biens meubles ou immeubles sans payer aucun droit de sortie ou autre imposition quelconque établie sur cet objet.
Les Sujets des deux Hautes Puissances, établis dans l'un des deux pays, savoir en Suède ou en Finlande, auront pleine liberté de s'établir dans l'autre pendant l'espace de trois ans à dater du jour de l'échange des Ratifications du présent Traité, et seront tenus de vendre ou aliéner, pendant le dit espace, leurs biens à quelque sujet de la Puissance dont ils désirent de quitter les domaines.
Les biens de ceux qui à l'expiration du dit terme n'auront pas rempli cette disposition, seront vendus aux enchères publiques par autorité de justice, pour en être le produit delivré aux Propriétaires.
Il sera loisible à tous de faire durant les trois années fixées ci-dessus tel usage qu'ils voudront de leurs propriétés, dont la paisible jouissance leur est formellement assurée et garantie.
Ils pourront de même que leurs Agens passer librement d'un Etat à l'autre pour administrer leurs affaires, sans qu'il soit pour cela porté la moindre atteinte à leur qualité de sujets de l'une ou de l'autre Puissance.

ART. XI.

Il y aura dès aujourd'hui oubli perpétuel du passé et une amnistie générale pour les sujets respectifs dont l'opinion ou les faits en faveur de l'une ou de l'autre des Hautes Parties Contractantes pendant la présente guerre, les auront rendûs suspects ou soumis à un jugement. Nul procès ne pourra désormais leur être intenté pour pareilles causes; s'il y en a d'entamés ils seront annullés et abolis, et aucun jugement nouveau n'y interviendra. En conséquence main levée sera immédiatement accordée sur les biens ou revenus saisis ou séquestrés, qui seront restitués aux proprietaires, bien entendu que ceux d'entre eux, devenus Sujets de l'une des deux Puissances, d'après les conditions de l'article précédant, n'auront pas droit de réclamer du Souverain dont ils ont cessé d'être Sujets, la continuation des rentes ou pensions qu'ils avaient obtenu à titre de grace, concessions ou appointemens pour leurs services précédens.

ART. XII.

Les titres Domaniaux, Archives et autres Documens publics et particuliers, les Plans et Cartes de Forteresses, Villes et Pays dévolus par le présent Traité à Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies, y compris les Cartes et Papiers qui peuvent se trouver au Comptoir d'Arpentage, Lui seront fidellement remis dans l'espace de six mois, ou si cela etait reconnu impossible, au plus tard dans un an.

ART. XIII.

Aussitôt après l'echange des ratifications du présent Traité, les Hautes Parties Contractantes feront lever tout séquestre mis sur les biens, droits et revenus des habitants respectifs des deux pays et sur les établissemens publics qui y sont situés. Elles s'obligent à acquitter tout ce qu'Elles peuvent devoir pour fonds à Elles prêtés par les dits particuliers et établissemens publics, et à payer ou rembourser toutes rentes constitués à leur profit sur chacune d'Elles.
La décision de toutes réclamations entre les sujets des Hautes Parties Contractantes, rélativement aux créances, propriétés ou autres droits, qui conformement aux usages reçus et au droit des Gens doivent être reproduites à l'époque de la paix, appartiendra aux Tribunaux compétens, et il sera rendu la justice la plus prompte et la plus impartiale aux individus, qui se trouveront dans le cas d'y avoir recours.

David_Pritchard

  • Guest
Re: Some documents from the Reign of Aleksander I
« Reply #44 on: January 18, 2006, 05:28:39 PM »
Treaty of Peace between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Sweden, 1809. Part III

ART. XIV.

Les dettes tant publiques que particulières contractées par des Finlandois en Suède et vice versa par des Suédois en Finlande, devront être acquittées aux termes et conditions stipulées, et comme les communications entre les deux pays ont été interrompues par la guerre, le terme de préscription est prolongé de manière qu'à dater du 1:r Janvier 1808 jusqu'à six mois après la Ratification du présent Traité, aucun droit ne sera censé éteint pour n'avoir pas été observé aux époques convenues. Toute réclamation à ce sujet sera portée devant les Tribunaux respectifs et spécialement protégée par les deux Gouvernemens, afin que la justice la plus active et la plus impartiale soit rendue aux parties intérressées.

ART. XV.

Les sujets de l'une des Hautes Parties Contractantes, à qui il écheoira dans les Etats de l'autre des biens par héritage, donations ou autrement, pourront les recevoir sans difficulté, et jouiront au besoin de toute la protection des Loix et de l'assistance des Tribunaux pour en être mis en possession et user de tous les droits qui en dérivent. L'exercice de ces mêmes droits, rélativement aux biens situés dans la Finlande, sera subordonné aux clauses stipulées dans l'Article X., qui oblige les propriétaires à fixer leur domicile dans le pays, ou à vendre ou à aliéner dans l'espace de trois ans les biens qu'ils y possédent. Ce terme sera accordé à tous ceux qui opteront pour ce dernier cas à dater du jour que l'héritage ou donation leur sera dévolue.

ART. XVI.

La durée du Traité de commerce entre les Hautes Parties Contractantes étant fixée jusqu'au 17(29) Octobre 1811, Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies consent à ne pas tenir compte du tems de son interruption pendant la guerre et que le dit Traité soit remis en vigeur, observé et executé jusqu'au 1 (13) Fevrier 1813, en tout ce qui ne sera pas contraire aux dispositions du Manifeste pour le commerce émané à S:t Petersbourg le 1 Janvier 1807.

ART. XVII.

Les pays incorporés à l'Empire de Russie en vertu de ce Traité, étant liés avec la Suède par des rélations commerciales qu'une longue habitude, le voisinage et le besoin respectif ont rendu presque indispensables, les Hautes Parties Contractantes, jalouses de conserver à leurs sujets ces moyens d'utilité réciproque, sont convenues de prendre des arrangemens propres à les consolider. En attendant qu'Elles se soient entendues sur cet objet, les Finlandois auront la faculté de tirer de la Suède, le minerai, la gueuse de fer, la chaux, les pierres de construction des fourneaux de fonte, et en géneral tous les autres produits du sol de ce Royaume.
En réciprocité les Suédois pourront exporter de la Finlande, le bétail, le poisson, le bléd, la toile et le goudron, les planches, les ustensiles en bois de toutes espèces, le bois de constructions et de chauffage et en général tous les autres produits du sol de ce Grand Duché.
Ce trafic sera rétabli et conservé jusqu'au 1(13) Octobre 1811 exactement sur le même pied qu'il étoit avant la guerre, et ne pourra être frappé sous aucun prétexte quelconque, de prohibition, ni grevé d'aucuns droits, autres que ceux qui pouvoient être imposés avant la dite guerre, sauf les restrictions que les rapports politiques des deux nations pourront rendre nécessaires.

ART. XVIII.

L'exportation annuelle exempte de droit de sortie, de cinquante mille Tschetwerts de bléd, dont l'achât aura été fait dans les Ports du Golphe de Finlande ou de la mer Baltique appartenans à Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies, est accordée à Sa Majesté le Roi de Suède, sur les preuves que l'achât en aura été fait pour Son compte ou en vertu de Son autorisation.
Sont exceptées les années stériles où l'exportation du bléd sera frappé d'une prohibition générale; mais les quantités arrièrées par suite de cette mésure, pourront être compensées lorsqu'elle cessera.

ART. XIX.

Pour ce qui regarde le Salut en mer entre les Vaisseaux de guerre des deux Hautes Parties Contractantes, il est convenu de le régler sur le pied d'une parfaité égalité entre les Couronnes. Quand Leurs Vaisseaux de guerre se rencontreront en mer, le Salut suivra le rang des Officiers Commandans, de sorte que celui d'un rang supérieur recevra le premier le salut, qui sera rendu coup pour coup. S'ils sont d'un rang égal on ne se saluera de part ni d'autre. Devant les châteaux, forteresses et à l'entrée des Ports, l'arrivant ou le partant salue le premier et ce salut lui est rendu coup pour coup.

ART. XX.

S'il s'élévoit des difficultés au sujet de quelques points, sur lesquels il n'auroit pas été statué par ce Traité, ils seront discutés et réglés à l'amiable par la voie des Ambassadeurs ou Ministres Plénipotentiaires respectifs, qui y apporteront le même esprit de conciliation qui a dicté le présent Traité.

ART. XXI.

Le présent Traité sera ratifié par les deux Hautes Parties Contractantes; et les Ratifications en bonne et dûe forme devront être echangées à S:t Petersbourg dans quatre semaines ou plutôt si faire se peut, à compter du jour de la signature du présent Traité.
En foi de quoi, nous Soussignés, en vertu de nos Pleinspouvoirs, avons signé le présent Traité de paix et y avons apposé le cachet de nos armes.
Fait à Friedricshamn ce Dix Sept (Cinq) Septembre l'an de grace Mille Huit Cent et Neuf.

                           
COURT
STEDINGK.
(L.S.)
A. F. SKJÖLDEBRAND.
(L.S.)
                           
Le Comte NICOLAS
DE ROMANZOFF.
(L.S.)
D. ALOPEUS.
(L.S.)

A ces causes Nous avons voulu ratifier, confirmer et accepter le susdit Traité de paix avec tous ses Articles, Points et Clauses, comme aussi par les présentes Nous l'acceptons, confirmons et ratifions avec tous Ses Articles, Points, et Clauses. Promettons et Nous engageons de la manière la plus efficace que faire se peut, de remplir et d'observer le dit Traité de paix dans toute sa teneur sincèrement, fidellement et loyalement. En foi de quoi Nous l'avons signé de Notre propre Main et l'avons fait munir de, Notre Grand Sceau Royal. Fait à Notre Ville de Stockholm le Troisième jour du mois d'Octobre, l'An de Grace Mil Huit Cent et Neuf.


CHARLES
(L.S.)
LAURENT D'ENGESTRÖM.


Ratification de Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies du Traité de Paix susmentionné.

Nous ALEXANDRE I. par la grace de Dieu, Empereur et Autocrateur de toutes les Russies, de Moscovie, Kiowie, Wladimi-rie, Novogorod, Czar de Casan, Czar d'Astracan, Czar de Sibérie, Czar de la Chersonèse Taurique, Seigneur de Plescou et Grand-Duc de Smolensko, de Lithuanie, Volhynie, Podolie et de Finlande, Duc d'Estonie, de Livonie, de Courlande et Semigalle, de Samogitie, Bialostock, Carélie, Twer, Jugorie, Permie, Wiatka, Bolgarie et d'autres; Seigneur et Grand-Duc de Novogorod inférieur, de Czernigovie, Resan, Polozk, Rostow, Jaroslaw, Belo-Osérie, Udorie, Obdorie, Condinie, Witepsk, Mstislaw, Dominateur de tout le côté du Nord, Seigneur d'Iverie, de la Cartalinie, de la Géorgie et de la Cabardie, Prince Héréditaire et Souverain des Princes de Czercassie, Gorsky et autres, Successeur de Norvège, Duc de Schleswick-Hollstein, de Stormarie, de Ditmarsen et d'Oldenbourg &c. &c. &c.: Savoir faisons par ces presentes que d'un commun accord entré Nous et Sa Majesté le Roi de Suède, Nos Plénipotentaires respectifs ont, en vertu de leurs plein-pouvoirs, arrêté et signé à Fredrichshamn le 5 (17) Septembre de la présente année, un Traité de paix, dont la teneur mot pour mot est comme suit:

(Suit tout le Traité de Paix.)

A ces causes, aprés svoir suffisamment examiné ce Traité de Paix, Nous l'avons agrée, confirmé et ratifié, comme par les présentes l'agréons, confirmons et ratifions dans toute son étendue, en promettant sur Notre parole Impériale pour Nous et Nos Successeurs, d'en maintenier, et observer inviolablement toutes les stipulations. En foi de quoi Nous avons Signé Notre présente ratification Impériale de Notre propre main et y avons fait apposer le Grand Sceau de Notre Empire. Donné à Saint Petersbourg ce 1:r Octobre l'an de grace 1809 et de Notre Règne la neuvième année.

ALEXANDRE.
(L. S.)
Le Chancelier de l'Empire Comte
NICOLAS DE ROMANZOFF.