[size=14]The Sudebnik 1497
Ivan III Vaselievich, Grand Prince of Moscow[/size]
Concerning Stolen Goods
Article 13. If defendant be brought with stolen goods (polichnoe) for the first time, and five or six men swear, after kissing the Grand Prince's cross, that the defendant is a known thief and has stolen more than once before, then he shall be executed and the sum at issue/plaintiff's loss paid from his property.
Concerning Testimony of Thieves
Article 14. And whomever a thief shall accuse, he shall be interrogated; if the accused has in the past been charged with theft, and supporting evidence given, he shall be tortured on accusation of theft; if there has been no previous charge, supported by evidence, of any sort against him, then the thief's accusations shall not be given [full] credence and he (the accused) shall be let out on bail pending further investigation.
Concerning the Written Court Decision (pravaja gramota)
Article 15. For affixing a seal on a court decision the fee shall be nine dengi per ruble, and the secretary, for signing it, shall receive one altyn per ruble, and the scribe who writes up the decision shall receive three dengi per ruble.
Concerning the Record of Trial (dokladnyj spisok)
Article 16. And the boyar shall affix his seal to the trial record, and the secretary shall sign it. And for [each] record the boyar shall take one altyn per ruble; the secretary, for signing it, four dengi per ruble; and the scribe, who writes up the record, two dengi per ruble.
Concerning Court Decisions on Slaves
Article 17. And for a written court decision and for a manumission (otpustnye) of a male or female slave the boyar shall receive, for affixing his seal, nine dengi a head; the secretary, for signing, one altyn a head, and the scribe, who writes up the decision or manumission, three dengi a head.
Concerning the Slave Manumission
Article 18. And if anyone presents a manumission without reporting to the boyar and without the secretary's signature, or, in towns, without reporting to the vicegerent who is a boyar holding full jurisdictional grant, then such manumission is not valid, except when the master (gosudar') with his own hand shall write it, and then said manumission is valid.
Concerning Unjust Court Procedure
Article 19. And whomever a boyar without [proper] trial declares in the wrong, and, with the secretary, issues a written court decision against him, then that decision shall be invalid, and that which was taken [shall be] returned. But the boyar and secretary shall pay no fine, and the parties shall commence proceedings anew.
Concerning the Decree to Vicegerents
Article 20. And city vicegerents and rural vicegerents who hold limited jurisdictional grants shall not release a male or female slave without formal report [to higher authorities], nor issue documents returning runaway slaves to their masters. Likewise they shall not issue to a male or female slave a court decision against the master without reference up, nor issue a manumission to a male or female slave.
Concerning the Grand Prince
Article 21. And for the administration of justice by the Grand Prince and his children the same shall be taken from the guilty party as for the boyar court, [to wit,] two altyns per ruble, to whomever the Grand Prince shall order.
Concerning the Written Court Decision
Article 22. For a written court decision the seal-keeper of the Grand Prince and of the Grand Prince's children shall receive nine dengi per ruble for [affixing his] seal; the secretary shall receive an altyn per ruble for signing; the scribe, who writes up the decision, three dengi per ruble.
Article 23. And from a male or female slave the seal-keeper shall take, for a written court decision, nine dengi a head; the secretary shall take, for signing, an altyn a head; the scribe, who writes up the decision, three dengi a head.
Concerning the Record of Trial
Article 24. And the record of trial for reporting up to the Grand Prince and to his children shall be stamped by the seal-keeper of the Grand Prince and by the seal-keeper of his children. For affixing the seal upon such record he shall take nine dengi per ruble; the secretary, for signing, shall take an altyn per ruble; and the scribe, who writes it up, shall receive two dengi per ruble.
Concerning Record(s) of Default Judgments
Article 25. And for [recording] a default judgment the seal-keeper shall receive an altyn per ruble; the secretary, for signing it, also an altyn per ruble; and the scribe shall take two dengi per ruble.
Concerning Court Summons
Article 26. And for summonses the secretary shall take, for his signature, two dengi apiece. And for postponements the secretary shall take, for his signature, three dengi per ruble. And the scribes shall take two dengi per ruble for writing it up. And if the plaintiff [or] defendant both desire a postponement, each shall pay one half the cost of signing and writing it up, plus a riding-distance fee, (xozhenoe), to the bailiff. And if a plaintiff or defendant does not answer a summons, and sends for a postponement, he alone shall bear the costs of both the summons and the postponement, and the service fee. And the ministers shall keep the summonses in their possession.