Author Topic: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich  (Read 15881 times)

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Offline Grand Duke

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Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« on: December 21, 2005, 02:37:01 PM »

Grand Duke Constantin, brother of Alexander I and Nicholas I

I'm THE GRAND DUKE of LIPTON-upon-AVON ! Please to meet you. I'm glad you know my name!

Offline Daniela

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #1 on: November 03, 2006, 06:05:13 AM »
Hello!

I think that GD Konstantin don't have his own tread. I know that there is a tread on Anna Feodorovna and that there is some information on GD Konstantin, but why not a tread of his own.

So, here is a bio on GD Konstantin:

Constantine Pavlovich Romanov (27 April, 1779–27 June, 1831), Grand Duke and Tsarevich of Russia, was prepared by his grandmother, Catherine the Great, to become an emperor of the would-be restored Byzantine Empire. Although he was never crowned, he is sometimes listed among the Russian emperors as Constantine I. He was mainly known for his abdication from the throne in 1825, which led to the Decembrist rebellion later that year. In his capacity of the first Viceroy of the Congress Kingdom of Poland, he is remembered as a ruthless ruler.
Early life
Constantine was born at Tsarskoye Selo on 27 April 1779. Of the sons born to the Tsar Paul Petrovich and his wife Maria Feodorovna, the Princess of Württemberg, none more closely resembled his father in bodily and mental characteristics than did the second, Constantine Pavlovich.
The direction of the boy's upbringing was entirely in the hands of his grandmother, the Empress Catherine II. As in the case of her eldest grandson (afterwards the Emperor Alexander I), she regulated every detail of his physical and mental education; but in accordance with her usual custom she left the carrying out of her views to the men who were in her confidence. Count Nicolai Ivanovich Saltykov was supposed to be the actual tutor, but he too in his turn transferred the burden to another, only interfering personally on quite exceptional occasions, and exercised neither a positive nor a negative influence upon the character of the exceedingly passionate, restless and headstrong boy. The only person who really took him in hand was Cesar La Harpe, who was tutor-in-chief from 1783 to May 1795 and educated both the empress's grandsons.
Like Alexander, Constantine was married by Catherine, when he was not yet seventeen years of age (26 February 1796), a raw and immature boy, and he made his wife, Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Queen Victoria's aunt), intensely miserable. After the first separation in the year 1799, she went back permanently to her German home in 1801, the victim of a frivolous intrigue, in the guilt of which she was herself involved. An attempt made by Constantine in 1814 to win her back to his hearth and home broke down on her firm opposition.
Napoleonic Wars
During the time of this tragic marriage Constantine's first campaign took place under the leadership of the great Suvorov. The battle of Bassignano was lost by Constantine's fault, but at Novi he distinguished himself by such personal bravery that the Emperor Paul bestowed on him the title of Tsarevich, which according to the fundamental law of the constitution belonged only to the heir to the throne. Though it cannot be proved that this action of the tsar denoted any far-reaching plan, it yet shows that Paul already distrusted the Grand Duke Alexander.
Constantine never tried to secure the throne. After his father's death he led a wild and disorderly bachelor life. He abstained from politics, but remained faithful to his military inclinations, without manifesting anything more than a preference for the externalities of the service. In command of the Guards during the campaign of 1805, he had a share of the responsibility for the unfortunate turn which events took at the battle of Austerlitz; while in 1807 neither his skill nor his fortune in war showed any improvement.
After the peace of Tilsit he became an ardent admirer of the great Corsican and an upholder of the Russo-French alliance. It was on this account that in political questions he did not enjoy the confidence of his imperial brother. To the latter the French alliance had always been merely a means to end, and after he had satisfied himself at Erfurt, and later during the Franco-Austrian War of 1809, that Napoleon likewise regarded his relation to Russia only from the point of view political advantage, he became convinced that the alliance must transform itself into a battle of life and death. Constantine did not hold this view; even in 1812, after the fall of Moscow, he pressed for a speedy conclusion of peace with Napoleon, and, like field marshal Kutuzov, he too opposed the policy, which carried the war across the Russian frontier to victorious conclusion upon French soil.
During the campaign he was a boon companion of every commanding officer. Barclay de Tolly was twice obliged to send him away from the army. His share in the battles in Germany and France was insignificant. At Dresden, on the 26th of August, his military knowledge failed him at the decisive moment, but at La Fère-Champenoise distinguished himself by personal bravery. In Paris the Grand Duke excited public ridicule by the manifestation of his petty military fads. His first visit was to the stables, and it was said that he had been marching and drilling even in his private rooms.
Izberi svojo ljubezen, in ljubi svoj izbor!

Offline Daniela

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #2 on: November 03, 2006, 06:06:09 AM »
The second part:

Governor of Poland
Constantine's importance in political history dates from when his brother, Tsar Alexander, entrusted him in Congress Kingdom of Poland as viceroy, with a task of the militarization and discipline of Poland. In the Congress Poland created by Alexander he received the post of commander-in-chief of the forces of the kingdom; to which was added later (1819) the command of the Lithuanian troops and of those of the Russian provinces that had formerly belonged to the kingdom of Poland.
His efforts to strengthen the secret police (Ochrana) and suppress the Polish patriotic movements led to popular discontent among his subjects. Ill-tempered and brutal, also persecuted the liberal opposition, replaced Poles with Russians on important posts in local administration and the army, and often insulted and assaulted his subordinates, which led to conflicts within the officer corps. Finally, his disobedience of the constitution he was personally proud of conflicted him with the Polish parliament, until then mostly dominated by supporters of the personal union with Russia. In Poland, he was viewed as a tyrant and, hated by both the military and civilian population. In Polish literature Constantine is represented as a cruel and despotic person.
After nineteen years of separation, the marriage of Constantine and Juliane was formally annulled on 20 March 1820. Two months later, on 27 May 1820 Constantine married with the Countess Joanna Grudzińska, who was given the title of Her Serenity Princess Lowicka. Connected with this was his renunciation of any claim to the Russian succession, which was formally completed in 1822. After this marriage, in the late 1820s, he became increasingly attached to his new home, Poland.
One inch from the throne
When Alexander I died on the 1st of December 1825, the Grand Duke Nicholas had him proclaimed Emperor in St Petersburg, in connection with which occurred the revolt of the Russian Liberals, known as the rising of the Dekabrists. Constantine's attitude in this has been seen as more correct than the uncertain attitude of his brother.
Under the Emperor Nicholas, Constantine maintained his position in Poland. Differences soon arose between him and his brother in consequence of the share taken by the Poles in the Dekabrist conspiracy. Constantine hindered the unveiling of the organized plotting for independence which had been going on in Poland for many years, and held obstinately to the belief that the army and the bureaucracy were loyally devoted to the Russian empire. The eastern policy of the Tsar and the Turkish War of 1828 and 1829 caused a fresh breach between them. It was due to the opposition of Constantine that the Polish army took no part in this war, so that there was in consequence no Russo-Polish comradeship in arms, such as might perhaps have led to reconciliation between the two nations.
The insurrection at Warsaw in November 1830 took Constantine completely by surprise. It was because of his utter failure to grasp the situation that the Polish regiments passed over to the revolutionaries; and during the revolution he showed himself as incompetent as he was lacking in judgment. He was considered an enemy by most of the Polish insurgents. One of the opening events of the uprising included an assassination attempt on him. His soldiers were victorious, however he did not live to see the suppression of the revolution.
He died of cholera at Vitebsk on the 27th of June 1831.

http://www.answers.com/topic/grand-duke-constantine-pavlovich-of-russia




Izberi svojo ljubezen, in ljubi svoj izbor!

Offline Daniela

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #3 on: November 03, 2006, 06:15:51 AM »
« Last Edit: April 29, 2009, 10:27:25 AM by Svetabel »
Izberi svojo ljubezen, in ljubi svoj izbor!

Offline Daniela

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #4 on: November 03, 2006, 06:53:30 AM »
But, I have a question also on GD Konstantin; while he was a Governor in Poland, was he perhaps a "patron" to Frederick Chopin?
I'm asking this because, when I was watching a movie on Chopin, it was said that when GD Konstantin had a fit, Chopin was called and was forced to play a violin.
It was this true?

Thanks


Daniela
Izberi svojo ljubezen, in ljubi svoj izbor!

Offline ilyala

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #5 on: November 06, 2006, 03:11:11 AM »
i read somewhere that the decembrists shouted 'constantine and the constitution'. what led the decembrists to believe he would issue a constitution after such a despotic rule of poland?
'loving might be a mistake, but it's worth making'
ilya


Offline Svetabel

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #6 on: November 06, 2006, 03:47:15 AM »
what led the decembrists to believe he would issue a constitution after such a despotic rule of poland?

They did not know about a secret agreement between Alexander I and Konstantin. The most of the Romanov family knew that a heir to the throne was in fact Nikolay Pavlovich, and of course this was a secret for Russian society.

Offline ilyala

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #7 on: November 06, 2006, 04:05:45 AM »
i believe nicholas hoped till the end that constantine would spare him the burden.
'loving might be a mistake, but it's worth making'
ilya


Offline Svetabel

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #8 on: November 06, 2006, 04:16:32 AM »
i believe nicholas hoped till the end that constantine would spare him the burden.

Nikolay was not a weak person. Of course he did not believe at first that he would be the Emperor but I think he was able to prepare himself for his destiny.

Offline ilyala

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #9 on: November 06, 2006, 04:31:52 AM »
i read that he hoped he wouldn't have to be emperor and that he insisted that constantine be declared emperor. i don't think he did that with any hidden meanings.
'loving might be a mistake, but it's worth making'
ilya


Offline grandduchessella

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #10 on: November 06, 2006, 07:58:01 AM »
In Romanov Autumn, it's written that Nicholas didn't know about the actual renunciation that Constantine had signed so he thought it wasn't official and was loathe to upsurp his brother. In addition, there was no prior public knowlege, or an official statement afterwards, regarding this and it looked like Nicholas was trying to snatch the throne. There was a period where it seemed there were 2 Emperors, or none depending on how you look at it, since both were pledging allegiance to each other. The royal guards swore allegiance to Constantine (who was regarded as more liberal-minded though I don't see what in his record in Poland should've given them this idea as he was roundly disliked) and there started to be unrest within the military who tried to get more groups to follow their lead. Army officers  led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 to march on Senate Square in St Petersburg. Nicholas sent Count Miloradovich out to meet them and he was shot dead.  The situation deteriorated and Nicholas had the crowd fired on. Nicholas accepted his role as Emperor and any potential mutinies were put down--this is the Decembrist Uprising. Unfortunately, much like his great-grandson later on, the firing upon the crowds, whatever the reason, damaged the image of the new ruler and it still lingers over his legacy.

Those behind the revolt were sentenced to death. When they were being hanged, the ropes split and they fell to the scaffold. There was a tradition that this meant they were to be spared their penalty but Nicholas had it carried out anyway.

There were rumors (later scoffed at by those in 'the know') that when changing 'Constantine and Constitution' many of those thought that 'Constitution' was Constantine's new wife--a Polish woman, Countess Joanna Grudzińska, he married after divorcing his royal wife.
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Offline Svetabel

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #11 on: November 06, 2006, 09:29:00 AM »
In Romanov Autumn, it's written that Nicholas didn't know about the actual renunciation that Constantine had signed so he thought it wasn't official and was loathe to upsurp his brother. In addition, there was no prior public knowlege, or an official statement afterwards, regarding this and it looked like Nicholas was trying to snatch the throne.

Well, according to "The Romanovs" by Ev. Pchelov (a Russian historian), in 1819 Alexander I said in a private talk to Nikolay that he (Alexander) was going to abdicate and Konstantin did not wish to reign. So Nikolay knew that such wishes existed. In 1822 Alexander I (after a letter of abdication from Konstantin) signed a secret manifest declaring Nikolay a heir to the throne, though this document was not proclaimed. The widowed Empress Maria Fedorovna knew about the manifest and she said about it to Nikolay. Anyway after the death of Alexander I Nikolay fisrt of all organized an oath of allegiance to Konstantin. Maria Feodorovna was shocked. The interregnum ended up in14 December, Nikolay porclaimed himself the Emperor.

Offline violetta

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #12 on: March 31, 2009, 06:24:47 AM »
i guess gd constantine pavlovich is not a favorite member of the if for most forum members ;) still, i`d like to say something about him & his second morganatic marriage. there is a thread on anna fedorovna here

http://forum.alexanderpalace.org/index.php/topic,3249.0.html

where it`s possible to learn smth about his private life.

he was far from being a perfect husband for anna, he was mean, nasty and subject to feats of anger. she couln`t stand his attitude & behavior and left for her native coburg. i don`t justify constantine but he was in fact forced to marry (though he chose anna, not her sisiters) by Catherine II. the empress wanted her grandsons Alexander & Constantine to be married as soon as possible and their respective wives were supposed to give birth to sons. what could one expect from the immature boy who inherited his father`s temper?!

nevertheless, he was a tender & loving husband for his 2nd morganatic wife Joanna, the princess of Lowich. it took him 4 yeras to get permission from the dowager impress mariya fedorovna to marry her. he renounced his rights for the throne.

constantine & joanna`s life was peaceful and happy. they enjoyed everyday routine. in a letter to her sister princess lowich wrote :" Totay is like yesterday, yesterday was like the day before yesterday.I pray that nothing interrupts our boring life". once gd constantine saw a lady in a beautiful dress that would, according to him, suit is wife so e asked a servant to measure te princess`s dress so that he could order the same dress for her.

on the night of the so-called November rebellion when polish military men entered the palace in warsaw (constantine & his wife ad to run away actually) they searced through his private apartments and found out the tings dear to Constantine`s heart, deeply hidden among is private belongings : candles  use during the ceremony of orthodox marriage ceremony, joanna`s gloves that she was wearing during wedding, a handkerchief with her initials...

when constantine died in vitebsk his wife was in a horrible condition.se wrote to nikolay I asking him what she was supposed to do as she ad no private wishes any more. she did put a lock of her hair into his coffin. she was invited to live in tsarskoe selo but her health was deteriorating rapidly. she used to say that she wouldn`t survive the horrible first anniversary of the November rebellion( that night ended their peaceful life anf forced them to run away) . and, she died on the night of the rebellion i e 29.11 to 30.11 as she predicted.

she was buried in a catholic chapel in tsarskoe selo but around 1930 her body, on request of the Polish authorities, her body was moved to Poland and buried somewere close to her family estate. she lies in a family grave of her sister (I think it was er sister). i haven`t been there but i`m planning to. may be in summer?

Offline Svetabel

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #13 on: April 01, 2009, 01:22:21 AM »




nevertheless, he was a tender & loving husband for his 2nd morganatic wife Joanna, the princess of Lowich. it took him 4 yeras to get permission from the dowager impress mariya fedorovna to marry her. he renounced his rights for the throne.

constantine & joanna`s life was peaceful and happy. they enjoyed everyday routine.




Actually their family life was not only roses. Ioanna was a hypersensitive woman with too much romantic in her head,and Konstantin though a sentimental person but anyway not a that one to stand constantly to women's whims. They both were possessive partners, so "everyday routine" sometimes was quite difficult, husband and wife had quarrels.

Offline violetta

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Re: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich
« Reply #14 on: April 01, 2009, 02:30:17 PM »
they had their ups and downs but all in all they had a pretty happy life. constantine pavlovich renounced his rights to the throne - that does mean someting! does anyone know a couple that leads a perfectly smooth life?