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Discussions about the Alexander Palace => The Alexander Palace => Topic started by: grandduchessella on August 07, 2004, 01:52:12 AM

Title: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: grandduchessella on August 07, 2004, 01:52:12 AM
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v441/grandduchessella/Necropolis001.jpg )

The Tsar's Horses Necropolis
It tells about a man's stuggle to save this graveyard where horses were buried for nearly a century, between the reign of Nicolas I and Nicholas II.Frozen under a thick blanket of snow lies this place, like if one was at the frontier of a lost world . This place is not on any maps nor on any tourist guides, no sign, no markings. At the end of a road in the woods, anonymous and quiet, as if we had been lost in time. In fact we are just few hundred meters from a famous tourist attraction, one of the most visited in Russia: the summer residence of the tsars, 20 km south of St. Petersburg. Millions of visitors discover each year the spendor of Catherine Palace or walk along the alleys of the park at Alexander's . But none set foot at the far corner of Tsarskoïe Selo. Will the lost tourist even notice this place that looks like a small farm, surrounded by a rusted fence with few sheds?

Just the red brick building gets attention at first. The two story building is topped with a rounded tower cover like some sort of ceramic hat. Behind the building, under the snow, one can guess the presence of tombs. All perfectly aligned, russian cemetaries have the characteristic to be alot more chaotic then this... No fuss, even less crosses, all aligned in rows of ten. If at first they look human sized, no man has ever been buried here. For almost a century, the tsars as a habit to bury their most "praised" horses--those which had the privilege to spend their retirement days in the small castle built for them, in recognition for their merits and courage. This building, ordered in 1826 by Nicholas I,  by the architect Adam Menelaws was the first  "retirement home" for horses in the world. Until the abdication of Nicholas II in march 1917, 122 imperial burials had been made.

The place is not a secret but it is not well known. The Soviet Union has ignored this tiny piece of tsarist land and history, which nearly disappeared forever, victim of the revolution, wars, vandalism, and from general lack of care. For a long time people walked its ground without paying it any attention. Then in 1952, the russian administration blocked the access to transform it into a workshop to make fireworks. The trucks' traffic finally destroyed many tombs and about 30 stones. The retirement house was then used by a team from the art department who turned the place into a restoration workshop and the suroundings were used as a dump. In the mid 80's, talks about a "clean-up" were heard of and the use of a bulldozer was considered. Who would really care? This Tsarskoïe Selo cemetery and its gothic pavillon had long since been erased from memories.

Today, this same little piece of land will soon ressusitate. "If all goes well, we will be able to open it to the public next fall."says Alexander Kedrinski, Historical Monuments of Tsarskoïe Selo chief architect. A small miracle , the fruit of 15 years of hard work by a Frenchman, Jean-Louis Gouraud, and a handful of friends. Both a writer and a horselover, this "russophile" had learned about the cemetery in Paris, while reading an old encyclopedia at the National Library. "I found an article from 1860 in Le Magasin pitoresque- sort of Science&Life of that time" On the drawing made by the journalist who visited the place, "one can see the stones with the name of the horse, the name of the tsar it has served, its date of birth and also the date of it death, also sometimes some historical facts."

The idea of a retirement house for horses came to Nicholas I in the early days of his reign, just at the time of the "coup d'état" and the battle against the Decemberists.He had those responsible hung, and sent the others to Siberia. Called "The Iron Tsar" or "Nicolas la trique" (trique for rope). After those events nothing seem to be more important to him than the comfort of his brother and predecessor Alexander I's horse, L'Ami, the horse on which he entered Paris in 1814, at the head of the coalition. This champion spent the rest of its life in this unique "retirement home" spending days in the fields surounding it before being buried in the cemetery.

The retirement home for horses- seven boxes on the ground level, the first floor being used to house the staff- was a four star establishment. After its inauguration, in1830, the tsar himself made sure that the temperature was right and he often checked on the quality of the hay given to them. "Some horses died at 36 or 37 years old because of those good conditions", adds Alexander Kedrinski. Beside L'Ami & Segaï, two of his brother horses, Nicholas I added three of his own, Milaya, Beauty and Alexander, also some belonging to his wife, Mathilda and Fritz. From the start, the hostel sign could have read "no vacancy", from now on more space would always be made available. When the first roomer died, on april 7th 1834, the tsar gave the order to "bury it beside its home"; he dictated what was to engrave on Beauty's stone himself, "which has served his imperial highness for 24 years". This inscription would serve as a model to all the other orders made to the marble expert Stiepan Anisinov. From 1844 other stone than marble was to be used. To this date, there were already ten tombs on three rows. One the first floor the horses' equipment were to be stored. It was like the start of a museum.

Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: grandduchessella on August 07, 2004, 01:53:39 AM
Jean-Louis Gouraud didn't know all the details as he closed the old magazine but his decision was made, he had to see this place as soon as possible "this specially dear place to horse lovers"  He had to wait for years, the USSR of the 1980's was not responding to any of his questions: was this cemetery still existing, where was it, can I visit it? A curtain of silence seemed to surround the mythical sanctury. Gouraud was trying to find more each time he was in Moscow, using his contacts with soviet editors circles, when he met Natacha Lapchena, a searcher for the Horses Institut who offered him to drive him to the famous cemetery: "An old equestrian teacher of hers had twenty years earlier discovered it."

On Oct 2 1988, Natacha, Jean-Louis and a common friend arrived in Leningrad, went to Tsarskoïe-Selo, named Pouchkine in those days, slipped through the gates to get in the forbiden to the public area to discover how bad the place looked. A wild vegetation had invaded it all; around the stable was a real mess: broken statues, rusted pieces of metal and coming out of the vegetation, a few tomb stones with cyrillic writings. Here and there pieces of stone. Beside these all seem to have disapeared and not only from memories. The illegal visitor's emotion quickly transforms into anger as the gardian of the site tells them about a bulldozer. "Luckily 1988 saw the begining of perestroïka, remembers Gouraud. Natasha had friends at the Leningrad television station, and rounded up a couple of those friends to voice that scandal. The authorities had no choice than to listen and act . So instead of destroying the site,a few steps were made to preserve it." The stones are then stored in the pavillon to protect them, but that is all. There's not a rouble available to give life back to those tsarist equestrian ghosts.
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v441/grandduchessella/Necropolis002.jpg)

What a remarkable man! I wonder what condition the cemetary is in now, 3 years later. After all, money is still very scarce for this sort of project.
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Penny_Wilson on August 07, 2004, 02:21:15 AM
We have an article on this subject in the Summer issue of Atlantis, which is being printed this week.  There is quite a bit of new information included, stemming from recent research conducted in Russia.  

I believe that this article above and its photos appeared in Le Monde, 25 January, 2001, so they should receive credit.
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: grandduchessella on August 07, 2004, 02:34:42 AM
Quote
We have an article on this subject in the Summer issue of Atlantis, which is being printed this week.  There is quite a bit of new information included, stemming from recent research conducted in Russia.  

I believe that this article above and its photos appeared in Le Monde, 25 January, 2001, so they should receive credit.


You're absolutely right. I had it credited originally but the posting was too long and I had to recompile it and didn't notice I'd lost the introduction (where the credit was given).  :-[ The site I saw it on had translated it from Le Monde and, since the English translation was slightly off, I re-translated their translation.

I thought I'd post it since I"d never heard of it and found it interesting--I'm glad you have found new follow-up information--I hope it's good news.
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Joanna on August 23, 2004, 07:05:40 PM
Corbis has images of the Horse Cemetery and Stables for Retired Horses (search term: russia in the third millennium of saints & horses).

One photograph dated August 1, 2000 is of "... Alexander Kedrinsky, former architect in charge of historical monuments, has come out of retirement in order to oversee restoration of the stables and of the horse cemetery..."

Joanna



Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: BobAtchison on August 25, 2004, 09:58:18 AM
Does anyone have any pictures?

Bob
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Penny_Wilson on August 25, 2004, 11:09:38 AM
I have quite a number of them, through a friend in St P'burg who spent an afternoon there taking them for me...  :D

Penny, long-time horse girl
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: grandduchessella on August 25, 2004, 11:23:21 AM
Quote
I have quite a number of them, through a friend in St P'burg who spent an afternoon there taking them for me...  :D

Penny, long-time horse girl


Here are the ones from my original post (they came through before, I don't know why they're that white box now).  ???
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v441/grandduchessella/Necropolis001.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v441/grandduchessella/Necropolis002.jpg)

OK, weird--once I resposted them down here, they popped back up on the original posting.  ???
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: BobAtchison on August 25, 2004, 12:12:46 PM
Amazing pictures - I hqad no idea the gravesite was so huge!
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Penny_Wilson on August 25, 2004, 04:50:04 PM
And there was I, thinking it was quite small, considering that there are 122 horses buried there!  8)

Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: grandduchessella on August 25, 2004, 05:12:52 PM
Quote
And there was I, thinking it was quite small, considering that there are 122 horses buried there!  8)



I guess it's all in the perspective. Plus, how did they bury those horses--straight up? The stones look awfully close together. When I was trying to re-find these pictures, I came across a lot of info on horse tombs. Apparently it was very widespread throughout the Asian empires. They loved their horses!
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Penny_Wilson on August 25, 2004, 05:20:24 PM
Quote

I guess it's all in the perspective. Plus, how did they bury those horses--straight up?


You'd think so, wouldn't you, as they're so close together.  But the one exhumation that I have seen photos of shows a horse laying on her side, as though she was asleep (although horses don't often sleep laying down....).  She was quite clearly carefully laid out.  I always think you can tell a lot about people by the way they behave towards animals... :D
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Joanna on August 26, 2004, 01:13:41 PM
Here is a photo of the Horse Cemetery of October 22, 2000:

http://www.asergeev.com/pictures/archives/compress/2000/157/32.htm

Joanna
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Genevieve on August 27, 2004, 12:14:05 AM
Wow, this is the first I have ever heard of this.  I am a big  horse lover.  It is kinda sad to think their horses were given a loving funeral and they were thrown in a pit.    It  really makes you think.
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Sergio on October 05, 2004, 07:12:57 PM
Portrait of Nicholas II on Horseback (1908) by Alexander Makovsky (1869-1915)

(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v488/Sebastiao/abg.jpg)
It`s a great portrait of the Tsar with a beautiful horse.


Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: grandduchessella on October 12, 2004, 06:04:54 PM
Found this on Alexander Palace when I was looking for GDss Alexandra N. info:
[Early part deals with stables where retired horses were allowed to spend their old age] The old horses are allowed to walk about in the meadow during summer. On the other side of the stable is a burial ground where a row of marble slabs mark the resting places of the favorite horses. Here lies "Ami" the horse that was with the Emperor Alexander I in Paris; "Flora", the horse that carried the Emperor Nicholas at Varna; and "Cob" the horse, which the late Tsar Alexander III used to ride, when he reviewed his troops.The wish of the Emperor Nicholas I (which, he expressed during the first month of his reign) that the old horses of his August Brother, Alexander I, should be properly looked after, is religiously carried out; the Imperial saddle-horses spend their last days in a beautiful stable; in summer they are allowed to wander at liberty; and their bones, are laid to rest here under marble slabs, which bear witness of their faithful service to their August Owners.

Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: ChristineM on October 13, 2004, 05:55:35 AM
The Maykovsky oil above of Nicholas II depicts him on the parade grounds of Sophia.   The Cathedral of St Sophia (architect:  Charles Cameron) can be seen in the background.   This painting is in the collection of Tsarskoe Selo Museums.

The Pensioners' Stables (for retired horses) can be found on the northern perimeter of the Alexander Park, just west of the Farm.  

Shortly after his accession, Nicholas I decided that the eight horses which had been owned and ridden by his late brother, Alexander I, be brought to Tsarskoe Selo from their St Petersburg stables.   He wanted them to to spend the rest of their lives, literally in clover.   In the summer months, the horses were put out to pasture - to a field specially planted with clover.

In 1827, Nicholas instructed the architect Adam Menelaws to build stables for the horses - accommodation at the nearby Farm was now insufficient.  

The Pensioners' Stables is a two-storeyed building, constructed of red-brick in the, then fashionable, neo-Gothic 'English' style.   On the ground floor there were eight stalls - only for horses ridden by an Emperor.   There was also a tack room.   The upper floor contained accommodation for grooms as well as for the watchman.   The courtyard was surrounded by a series of wooden storage huts.

Just south of the Pensioners' Stables is the Horse Cemetery.   Here the horses ridden by Emperors after living out their old age in the nearby stables and meadow, have found eternal rest.  

Rows of slabs mark the graves of horses ridden by Russian Emperors - from Alexander I to Nicholas II.  Their names and details are carved into the granite. The earliest graves can be found in the eastern section of the cemetery.   The last graves were dug shortly before the Revolution.

In the cemetery one can find the graves of L'ami, the horse  Alexander I rode, triumphantly, into Paris:  Flora - one of Nicholas I's favourite steeds: Cob the horse ridden, very reluctantly - he had a phobia of horses - by Alexander III.   Cob survives in the famous equestrian statue by P.P. Trubetskoy and was previously sited in the centre of Znamenskaya Square.   (This statue was unveiled in 1911 by Nicholas II when he was accompanied by Empress Alexandra Feodorovna and the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna.   It portrays the very large, barrel-chested,  Alexander III mounted on Cob - an inappropriately small, horse.

After the Revolution, the 'new regime' appended the following legend  -

'My son (Nicholas II) and my father (Alexander II), were     executed in their prime.  
But I have obtained posthumous glory.
I stand here an an iron scarecrow for the country
Which has forever thrown off the yoke of autocracy.)

The statue can now be found, standing a little forlornly in the courtyard of the Russian Museum.   The 'joke' has been removed.

tsaria
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Sergio on October 13, 2004, 08:36:47 AM
The Pensioners' Stables, The Horse Cemetery

See: http://eng.tzar.ru/alexander_park/alex_landscape/stables

(http://eng.tzar.ru/content/images/134.jpg) Detail of the stone slab
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Arleen on October 13, 2004, 01:26:37 PM
Thank you so much for this lovely thread!  I had no idea the horse tombs existed.  Which horses of Nicholas II are here? .....did Alexandra have a horse and did she ever ride.  I can't picture her tearing around like Ducky......    Arleen
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Sergio on October 13, 2004, 02:10:26 PM
Quote
... did Alexandra have a horse and did she ever ride.

Please, follow the link and go to the end of the page:
http://groups.msn.com/ImperialDynastyTheROMANOVARCHIVES/thetsarhorses.msnw  :D
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Scott on September 24, 2005, 04:35:25 PM
I have recent photos of most of the grave markers (that have legible engravings) if anyone is interested.
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Tania+ on September 24, 2005, 07:12:14 PM
Thank you Granduchessella, and everyone for your links and pictures. You have enriched my reading experience.
How wonderful that the Horse Tombs of The Tsars will be opened to the public.

Tania
Title: September 16, 2005, Photos
Post by: Scott on October 22, 2005, 10:39:17 PM
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0606comp.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0608comp.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0609comp.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0610comp.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0611comp.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0612comp.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0613comp.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0614comp.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0615comp.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0616comp.jpg)
(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v491/lydunka/DSCN0617comp.jpg)
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Arleen on October 24, 2005, 03:24:21 PM
Thank you Scott, your pictures are beautiful as always.  I really didn't realize that the stones would be so beautiful and so wonderfully carved.  They really loved their horses!!

..Arleen
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Joanna on March 11, 2007, 08:38:13 PM
From Geglov's amazing site, a series of photographs c1930-1940 of Detskoe Selo that includes this one of the horse cemetery:

http://pushkin-history.info/fotoalbom/130.html

Joanna
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Vassili_Vorontsoff on May 07, 2007, 06:04:17 AM
I've posted some photos of the cimetery and the french website of the association of support .
http://forum.alexanderpalace.org/index.php/topic,3286.0.html
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Greenowl on May 08, 2007, 04:45:59 AM
This thread is so interesting and beautiful. I had no idea that such a memorial existed. Thanks to everyone, especially Scott for the wonderful photos. Could some kind person please translate the inscription on even a few of the tombstones? I cannot understand Russian and I would love to know what is written there. I assume it mentions the horse's name, breed and details of its "service". It would really make my day if someone could help me in his regard. In anticipation and many thanks in advance....
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Nemos on November 19, 2007, 02:20:26 PM
http://pushkin-history.info/fotoalbom-old-1-/5677.html

Ëîøàäü íà ïîõîðîíàõ Èìïåðàòîðà Àëåêñàíäðà III.
Horse on funeral of Emperor Alexander III.
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Greenowl on November 19, 2007, 03:39:57 PM
Thanks Geglov 2-3 for posting that wonderful and most poignant photo.

GREENOWL
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Joanna on November 23, 2008, 08:00:39 PM
A photograph of a few of the grave markers of the horse cemetery leaning against a wall. Was this for restoration reasons or a museum display? The two statues are a mystery. Were they part of the cemetery c1900s or from the arsenal?

http://apa.confessmedia.com/cm/shv7ebYnaejG7RfU2oJQ4eRUHytaoVyI/2/zoom=400x400,quality=80/EYEGA_00109526.jpg

Joanna
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: BobG on November 24, 2008, 08:04:09 AM
Joanna,
I think there's something wrong with your link.  Like your post in the Valet thread, I'm unable to open this one as well.
Bob
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Cathy on November 24, 2008, 10:28:15 AM
It's OK now - I think the site may have had a problem but it is up now.
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Joanna on December 23, 2009, 05:52:55 PM
A detailed study on the horse cemetery at the Pensioners Stables in Tsarskoe Selo:

Fig 1 - Plan of AP Park with location of Pensioners Stables
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_01.gif

Fig 2 - Plan of the horse cemetery and surrounding buildings
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_02.gif

Fig 3 - General plan of the horse cemetery
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_03.gif

Fig 4 - Horse Grave #64
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_04.gif

Fig 5 - Skeleton of horse Grave #64
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_05.gif

Fig 6 - Fragment of gravestone of the gelding Crimea
http://spbae.ru/ris_trifonov_06.gif

Archaeological research equine cemetery at Tsarskoe Selo. (1998-2000 gg.)

The program of scientific cooperation with the State Museum-Reserve "Tsar's Village", as well as in connection with the preparation of complex pensioner's stables "to the restoration, the expedition of the Institute of History of Material Culture of Russia Academy of Sciences for three field seasons (1998-2000) conducted a study on identify planning equine cemetery. Program of archaeological works has been agreed with management, scientific and engineering departments of the Museum-Reserve "Tsarskoe Selo".

Complex "pensioner's stables is located in Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin), on the northern outskirts of the Alexander Park, approximately 1 km to the NW of the Alexander Palace on Fermskoe road. In the modern topographic map of the memorial complex is marked as cattle cemetery (Fig. 1).

According to the archives, "pensioner's stables" were established by decree of Emperor Nicholas I in 1826 for the old horses "of his own saddle Their Majesties." Building stables built by architect A. Menelaws in 1827 in the Alexander Park. Later in the stables were arranged cemetery for the burial of dead horses. In the first half of XX century the territory of the cemetery came into ruin, and was substantially damaged during construction on its territory outbuildings.

In planning and carrying out archaeological work took into account the results of previous studies the cemetery, conducted by VA Korentsvitom in 1984 and the results of "full-scale study of a pensioner lay the horse cemetery, carried out in 1997, EA Turov.

Archaeological work was carried out under the supervision and with the assistance of the chief architect of the museum-reserve "Tsarskoe Selo" AA Kedrinsky, Deputy Director for Science IK Bott and researcher archive reserve museum EA Turov.

In the course of the work to identify the layout of the cemetery were conducted clearing tracks and parts of the cemetery, damaged during construction on its territory in different years of outbuildings, as well as the tomb of 64, significantly damaged as a result of grubbing of perennial trees.

All leveling notes taken from the zero mark, which was used as the upper point of the cap building pensioner's stables at the south side of the triangular bay window overlooking the east (Fig. 2).

When fixing and describing the singularities of the numbering plan of the cemetery was used and the terminology adopted in previous studies and reflected in the report EA Turov. All cases making the necessary changes and additions to previously accepted numbering and terminology accompanied by appropriate explanations.

In general, it allows to reconcile these data with results of previous studies.

Tomb 64 is located in the sixth "complete" series, at its northwestern end. To the south-east of it was the tomb of 65, to the north-east - the tomb of 52, to the east - the tomb of 53, to the south-south-west - the grave 74 (Fig. 3). Gravestones and grave pit were badly damaged by years of tearing up the oak. Given the magnitude of damage that threaten the safety of a tomb, it was decided to demolish a portion preserved in order to identify the nature of the basic structural elements of gravestones and burial pits, and to obtain data required for scientific and accurate restoration of the monument.

Investigation of the preserved part of the burial was carried out in layers, taking into account construction horizons (Fig. 5). During the clearing remnants of the original (original) design gravestones and identified key elements of design gravestones that had been erected during the reconstruction of the cemetery in the years 1874-1882. under the direction of the architect AF Species.

The upper tier of gravestones (Fig. 5, plan 1), which was placed withdrawn by the time the excavation gravestone with the inscription, was built of sawn stone (limestone light yellow / Pudozh stone / Putilov cooker) blocks whose size varies considerably . The largest of them reached about 70 cm in length, 50 cm in width and 30 cm in thickness. The most carefully were processed by those blocks, which formed the outer side of the gravestones and the surface on which was placed gravestone.

(cont'd)
Joanna
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Joanna on December 23, 2009, 05:54:03 PM
(cont'd)

Four blocks and part of the filling between them are preserved in situ. Two corner blocks south-western end have been fastened wrought iron staple length of 23 cm with a square cross section 2 x 2 cm Roll-formed at right angles to the ends of the staples were inserted in a specially carved into rounded blocks enhance diameter of 3 cm and a depth of 4 cm Judging by similar openings in the Eastern bloc, in the same manner were stitched and blocks the north-east end installations. The space between the blocks filled with debris of bricks, and filled with lime mortar. At one of the brick rubble traces letters labeling.

The stone blocks and zabutovka on lime mortar between them were laid on a relatively regular brickwork in lime mortar (Fig. 5, a plan 2). In the clutch, except for two integers, use large pieces of brick. One of the bricks on the entire north-eastern end of construction was located over the remains of a wooden chopping block width 11 cm, leaves in a northeasterly direction to the grave 52. At one of the brick rubble found the remains of labeling in the form of a letter E.

The brickwork was laid on the laying of rubble limestone slabs of various sizes and shapes, bonded with lime mortar. North-western part of the masonry was damaged when stubbing. Laying of bricks and tiles to match the size and orientation (Fig. 5, Plan 3) and include the time of reconstruction of the cemetery in the years 1874-1882.

Clear lower layer is also built of different sizes Putilov plates, only partially coincide with the boundaries of the three upper layers of the structure. The bulk of this building was located almost on the horizon of 1 m to the west and south of the overlying layers of brick and limestone. In its orientation there is a significant deviation to the north-west orientation of the gravestones of the cemetery renovation period (Fig. 5: Wed plans 3 and 4). This important observation, together with other direct and indirect data indicates a change in the reconstruction of the original general orientation of the cemetery gravestones, as well as the layout of the cemetery.

Under the slab of the third layer was opened layer, consisting of fragments of relatively thin slabs of medium size, length does not exceed 35 cm These plates were located only in the south-western half of gravestones. It is obvious that with their help aligns the horizontal plates of the third layer, built in this part of the two layers (Fig. 5: Wed plans 4 and 5).

The fourth layer is composed mainly of large fragments of plates, was also intended as the third and practically not been violated when stubbing (Fig. 5, plan 6). At the base of the north-eastern part of the construction horizon recorded 3 granite boulder with a diameter of 20 cm, relating to the fifth layer (Fig. 5: Wed plans 6 and 7). Carefully arranged large plates (up to 0,5 m) of the fifth layer adhered to the above stones. On the southwestern end of recorded fragments of tiles and stones of smaller size (Fig. 5, level 7).

Below the fifth was placed sixth layer, and a neatly folded from large limestone blocks (Fig. 5, Plan 8). In the south-western and north-eastern ends of the buildings are fragments of tiles and stones of smaller size, lying, as it turned out, the face parts of two wooden block, positions along the grave with a small offset to the south-east of its central axis. At this level the first time managed to trace the boundaries of the burial pits except in the disturbed northern corner and part of the south-eastern wall. Along the walls of the pit occasionally stones were small. After dismantling of the sixth layer was opened on the lowest structural part of gravestones provided by two longitudinal block, lying crosswise on two of the same cross block. The ends of the transverse scaffold were placed in a specially dug for them, 4-step niche in the north-western and south-eastern edges of the hole (Fig. 5, Plan 9). The space between the longitudinal block, particularly in places where they intersect with the transverse, was filled with fragments of slabs to align a flat surface for the plates of the sixth layer. Stones and fragments of plates were placed in several locations under both longitudinal and a transverse block. On the upper surface of the longitudinal block, located closer to the north-western edge of the grave was discovered 5 round-penetrating holes with a diameter of 3 cm, clearly intended for wooden studs. This points to re-use of this block, probably taken when disassembling a building. The second longitudinal block, rectangular in cross section, apparently also used a second time. Knotty rounded in cross-section diameter of 16-19 cm transverse chopping block had no visible signs of handling and is the main element of the bearing structure (Fig. 5, Plan 9). The length of the longitudinal scaffold - 2,60-2,65 m, the width of the north-western chopping block - 25-30 cm, south-east - 16-17 cm, thickness of both about 15 cm total length of the transverse scaffold, peaked within the excavation 2 25 and 2.55 pm, remained unknown, because their ends left in the south-eastern edge of excavation, partially under construction gravestones graves 65.

A rectangular grave pit size of 2,95 x 1,70-1,80 m had a rough south-eastern wall of the niche and 4-step for mounting the block overlap (Fig. 5, Plan 10). The surviving better than any other niche of the western corner of the grave was rectangular in form measuring 33 x 25 cm Nishi was admitted to the level of the buried soil to a depth of 0.5 m. The depth of the burial pits of the level of the buried soil was about 1.1 m. The pit is filled with yellow mainland-blue clay, which rarely met stones (Fig. 5, 11).

At the bottom of the pit lay the skeleton of a horse on the left side, head to the NE, face the east. The front legs bent at the knees horse almost at a right angle, rear extended. Horse skull was 30 cm higher than the lower pelvic bones (Fig. 5, Plan 10; Fig. 6). The bottom of the burial pits in the south-western part, apparently, was initially slightly deepened to accommodate more voluminous posterior half of the horse.

No accompanying equipment or items reins at the burial of horses were found.

(cont'd)
Joanna
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Joanna on December 23, 2009, 05:54:48 PM
(cont'd)

When disassembling gravestones between 3 and 4 construction horizons was found smooth brass buttons about 2 cm in diameter.

During the clearing of the burial pit burial 64 was detected sequence of burials were affiliated to the grave 64. In the north-eastern part of the 64 graves were discovered the remains of a wooden chopping block, of course, related to the gravestones graves of 52 - the extreme north-west burial in the fifth "complete" series. North-eastern part of the chopping block went under the original slab gravestones graves 52, the orientation of which deviates to the north-west and differs from the orientation of the upper blocks of the reconstruction period of the cemetery. Gravestones period of reconstruction of burial 52 is shifted by 80 cm to the north-east and 45 cm to the northwest relative to the original. Thus, the initial orientation of the graves of 52 and 64 coincide and differ significantly from the orientation of gravestones period of reconstruction of the cemetery. South-western end of the chopping block floors covered the graves of 52 north-eastern edge of the graves of 64 and, in turn, was blocked by the reconstructed part of the gravestones graves of 64, indicating that the later construction of the tomb 64 in relation to the grave 52. Obtained in the course of excavation data in general confirm the findings of AA Kedrinsky (Explanatory note to the project brief for the restoration of the ensemble Pensionernyh stables in the park in the Alexander Pushkin. 3-6) and followed by the EA Turova (Report 1997 pp. 5-6) on the construction of graves 52, 64, 65 prior to the restoration of gravestones. If the identification of the graves of 65 (1870, Ceres) and 52 (1863g.) is true, then not identified the tomb of 64 should relate to the period between 1870 and 1863 years.
However, stratigraphic observations made during the clearing of the graves of 64 and single finds in various parts of the cemetery contradict the results of the preliminary identification of some tombs of the cemetery.

Among the discovered in a cemetery 323 bits of marble tombstones with fragments of inscriptions, among the graves 14 and 15, was found a fragment of a marble slab, indicating 1828 or 1829 (the latter figure has been preserved only in the upper part). This finding may indicate that the commission of graves in the cemetery would begin in the late 20-ies, ie, before 1831, as generally believed.

The need for additional archival research to accurately identify the graves of the cemetery is indicated by finds from the gravestones preserved nicknames horses: Crimea (Fig. 7) and Djigit. Chip plate with the inscription "Merin sry Krym sluzhil Emperor ..." was found among the graves 96 and 97, and plate with the nickname Djigit - found near the gravestones of burial 100, which apparently belongs. However, according to a preliminary identification of burials, 8, 9 and 10 rows of graves are no horses with nicknames Crimea and Jiggs, that could mean the need to revise the identification of a large number of burials. In the western corner of the cemetery were found fragments of two plates with inscriptions.

On another plate of the retention of the following signs:

Empress Mary Feodorovna
Ck 1889 to 1891 god
fell 16th October
1909 "

Both fragment plates were removed from the original places of their location and damaged by construction on the southern section of the cemetery foundry.

During the inspection of the cemetery and clean up some of its sites, except for fragments of the tombstones were discovered the following items:

Bronze with traces of gilding decorations overhead doors Feodor Cathedral (attribution AA Kedrinsky) (3 fragment).

Iron horseshoe (6 pcs.).

Iron and bronze fastenings (pyrones) marble gravestones (7 pcs.).

Fragments made of crushed marble, ornamented floor stables.

Fragment of a cast iron lamp-tops (the portal?) Column.

In the course of archaeological raschistok and an overall plan for the cemetery have been several refinements to the location of tracks and the organization of the space between the gravestones (fig. 3, 5). So the first longitudinal track width 1,65-1,70 m, limiting the cemetery from the north-west, had a marked deviation to the north compared with the orientation of the longitudinal paths, restricting it to the south-east. Moreover, it is in the same direction were oriented original gravestones graves 52, 53, 64, 65. This indicates that this is the only track that has kept the original (before reconstruction), the orientation of the cemetery. After the eighth "complete" series, at the intersection with the eighth transverse track north-western path deviates somewhat to the west from its original orientation. The second longitudinal track begins between graves 1 and 2 and is parallel to the direction of the north-west track of every extreme northwestern dumping "complete" series, forming a bent ledges at 2, 5 and 7 "full" lines (Fig. 3). This track ended at the intersection with the transverse track for the tenth number. The third longitudinal track started from the second "complete" series between the graves of 17 and 18 and was in a southwesterly direction until the intersection with the transverse path of the eight "complete" next to the graves 86 and 87. It is almost straight, expanded in the second, third and fourth "complete" series to a width of 1,25 m and narrows to 80-85 cm in all other ranks. Fourth, the south-eastern longitudinal track width 1,30-1,50 pm-oriented as well as all the restored gravestones. Despite the devastation of the eastern and southern corners, we can assume that the total length of this track is almost 30 meters. In addition, the longitudinal track was decorated and the passage between the graves of 23 and 24 of the second "complete" series. From the south-east, the fourth to the longitudinal tracks to the north-west came to the intersection with the first ten longitudinal cross paths. First, the north-east track width of 1,80 m, is located behind the first row of graves and refers to the initial period of formation of the cemetery. On it there are 2 gravestones graves 11 and 12 of the first "incomplete" series.

http://spbae.ru/trifonov_2003.htm

Joanna
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Joanna on July 13, 2016, 04:19:38 PM
In Petra H. Kleinpenning’s book ‘The Correspondence of the Empress Alexandra of Russia with Ernst Ludwig and Eleonore Grand Duke and Duchess of Hesse’, Alexandra wrote on 10/22 July 1895 “… About the Sign of Kyss [?] - & Jung Selma [?]; - Nicky has several new riding horses …”

Were they the names of Nicholas II’s horses? I didn’t find new information on the Horse Cemetery in Tsarskoe Selo.

But I did discover aerials!

An aerial photograph of the Pensioners Stable and Horse Cemetery:
https://i.ytimg.com/vi/juxxR1XL2-k/maxresdefault.jpg

And my favorite! An aerial video:
https://youtu.be/juxxR1XL2-k

Joanna
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Sanochka on August 08, 2016, 01:55:02 PM
Awesome, Joanna!  This certainly helps put the location of the cemetery in perspective.

In the video, from 1:00 on, there is an animal running along the dirt road from the back of the cemetery to the brick building. It must be a large dog I imagine is frightened by the helicopter [?} flying directly above.   :)
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Ena on August 08, 2016, 10:36:09 PM
Thanks for the video.  It's amazing and gives such a great perspective of everything.  I love aerial views of Tsarskoe Selo.   

I've been to the horse cemetery.  The first time, it was covered knee deep in snow, so it was difficult to tell if I was in the right area. I ventured out a few months later, when there wasn't as much snow, and found it, but the tombs were still covered in snow.  Though you could make out that it was the graves.  That dog was there, barking at me and some guy came out to see what the commotion was all about.  He gave me a cross look then shook his head no when I motioned if it was okay to come inside. 
Title: Re: The Horse Tomb of the Tsars
Post by: Joanna on August 09, 2016, 04:20:07 PM
I do love aerials also!

There are many dogs within the parks at Tsarskoe Selo running around. A little scary.

Joanna