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Offline Dominic_Albanese

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News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« on: April 05, 2008, 04:36:08 PM »
Interesting Article...

http://vrn.kp.ru/daily/24071/309603/

How did the Russian Tsars die?
Scholars look at Russian history from a medical perspective
Galina Sapjnikova — 28.03.2008
How is the health of a country connected to the health of its people? Until recently, scholars did not begin to research this question. Such archival material remained closed though it is unlikely that the Tsars' medical records were a guarded state secret. The idea to write a book about the health of Russian monarchs came about spontaneously, said Gennadiy Oshishchenko, the lead author and Russia's сhief іanitary шnspector, at a presentation commemorating the 125th Anniversary of Russia's Federal Protective Service. Medical stories about the Tsars were published by Media Press in a 325-page book titled, "Medicine and Russia's Imperial Authorities."

Sorrow killed Nikolay I

Historians were interested in studying the death of Nikolay I. He had been the picture of beauty – an athlete standing 190 centimeters tall. The Tsar was almost never ill and boasted a healthy physique. He carefully hid his ailments from everyone. When necessary, he hid in his office on a cot beneath his greatcoat waiting for an illness to subside. He did not smoke or drink wine – even at official ceremonies – and was not a ladies' man. At the age of 59, he passed away over three weeks during the peak of the Crimean War.

The rumor immediately spread that Nikolay I had committed suicide. Soviet historians enthusiastically took advantage of this assumption. In the 20th Century, no one questioned what had really happened to the Tsar, although 19th-Century almanacs depicted Nikolay I differently from Soviet textbooks.

As it turned out, on Jan. 27, 1855 Emperor Nikolay I fell ill with the common cold. On Feb. 9, he was feeling better and decided to attend the review of his personal regiments. He traveled on an open sleigh in a thin coat although the weather was -23°С. The next day he attended another review, and soon began coughing and fell ill. He might have lived had he not received word of the Russian soldiers' misfortune in the Crimean War.

"Nikolay Pavlovich died from sorrow – true Russian sorrow. He showed no signs of physical illness. His sickness came at the last minute and his death was the result of moral suffering conquering over his physical being," wrote Prince Meshcherskiy. He had the fever for a week before his health took a turn for the worse. He then sent his final dispatch to Moscow.

Rumors spread that the Tsar had been poisoned by Dr. Mandt, because he had been poorly embalmed. His face blackened and swelled as a result and so a closed casket ceremony was held in his honor. Only the postmortem examination could confirm or refute this theory. However, the protocol strangely vanished from Russia's medical history. Similar medical accounts convinced 21st-Century researchers that Nikolay I died of natural causes.

One Tsar dreamed of women, while another fantasized about his work

Women were literally the death of Nikolay I's son Aleksander II. Doctors told him on numerous occasions that his body's emaciation was due to his many love affairs. The 63-year-old Aleksander II died on March 1, 1881 from making love to his young wife Ekaterina Dolgorukaya. It was his final sexual act that caused the Tsar to be late for a scheduled regimental review. When he arrived, several assassins awaited him with bombs. After the first explosion the Tsar exited his carriage unharmed. The second explosion proved fatal. Aleksander II lost both his legs. He ended up dying from blood loss as a result of poor treatment of the wounds.

A well-known myth about drinking is rooted in Aleksander III

The corpulent, towering (193 centimeters) Aleksander III actually did not drink. He loved his work and had too little time to engage in such activities. He observed a peculiar diet 250 days of the year and suffered from obesity. He was an athlete, and although he spent a great deal of time laboriously cutting wood, he could not lose weight. He spent his entire time sitting and obsessively writing decrees, as he did not have a secretary. He also worked very long evenings, which worried his doctors. No one would have guessed that he would die at 49. In 1888, the Tsar and his family were involved in a train crash. Aleksander III severely injured his spine and kidneys, which resulted in the illness that killed him. The end drew near for Aleksander III with a common cold, which turned into pneumonia and led to kidney complications. In September 1894, he fell ill and died one month later of nephritis, paralysis of the heart and over-fatigue.

The Tsar's doctors were underpaid

"If you read the book, then you will not want to be a Tsar," joked Onishchenko at the press conference. And the reader will indeed think again about becoming an emperor – numerous members of the Russian royalty died simply from misdiagnoses, including Nikolay I's daughter Aleksandra, Aleksander II's son Nikolay, Nikolay II's brother Georgiy and the last empress’s younger sister Elizabeth.

According to the book, Russian medical workers have received low wages since the 19th Century. The Tsar's medics were all underpaid. Although they charged the highest prices for treating patients from the Winter Palace, it did not compensate for their losses from private practices.

"The duties of the Tsar's doctors – regardless of how flattering they may be – significantly distract from private practices and result in financial loss," the Imperial Court Ministry noted in 1894.

Interestingly enough, Russian Tsars did not wear glasses – this was not because they had superb vision. It was thought that a lorgnette would destroy the monarch's image. Glasses also could not be worn as they were a symbol of liberalism.

Russian Tsars were treated exclusively by German doctors with the exception of the two last monarchs. All court doctors were subject to detailed inspections before appointment.

In 1913, Dr. Danilevich was refused by Court Commandant Voeykov because he "attended Jewish houses of worship, where propaganda speeches were made among Jewish youth."

When the last Russian Tsar Aleksey was born, a sick hemophiliac, his illness became a state secret. Thus, loyalty to the Tsar became more important than professionalism.

CONTINUES...

Offline Dominic_Albanese

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #1 on: April 05, 2008, 04:36:44 PM »
CONTINUED...

A look at the Romanovs from a psychiatric point of view

Only once did doctors openly diagnose a member of the royal family as mentally ill. The diagnose was given to Duke Nikolay Konstantinovich, Aleksander II's cousin, because he had an affair with a young gymnast and spent his personal funds on irrational business projects in Central Asia.

Nikolay II was called mentally ill behind his back due to his voracious self-control, which many perceived as a mental illness. He also refused the Russian throne.

Chairman of the Third Duma Aleksander Guchkov, who received Nikolay II's abdication, openly asked: "Are we dealing with a normal, healthy individual?" But any sane person might ask such a question after learning that the Tsar killed as many as 1,400 pheasants per day, slaughtered 3,786 homeless dogs over 6 years, 6,176 cats and 20,547 crows. This was written in the Tsar's log of hunting trophies. In 1891, Nikolay II received a head wound from a police officer who was attempting to kill him. Perhaps this affected his mental well-being.

Another “diagnoses” of his illness was his marriage three weeks after his father's death. He did not mourning for one year as was the Russian tradition.

Doomed love

The book hints that Bismarck sent an ill fiancee to the Russian Court to prevent the birth of a healthy heir. Her name was Aleksandra Fedorovna. Her blood was said to be "infected with poison." Nikolay II's fiancee was genetically inclined to bearing hemophiliac offspring. She was in poor health and moved around by wheelchair.

Fedorovna's health declined further after giving birth to four daughters in a row when she desperately needed to bear an heir to the throne. Numerous charlatans offered her various recipes for bearing a male child. The French Dr. Phillip helped her to finally give birth to a boy Aleksey and Georgiy Rasputin assisted taking care of the child.

Rasputin was right!

In 1957, American Dr. Paul Pansar determined that a hemophiliac's bleeding becomes worse with emotional stress. Aleksey could not go a day without suffering from physical injury, which nearly always resulted in hemorrhaging. Baroness Buksgevden wrote in her memoirs: "The calmness and sense of confidence emanating from this man [Rasputin] affected Aleksey's physical condition. The bleeding slowed. The tormented child began to fall asleep and then the bleeding ceased altogether."

Offline Annie

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #2 on: April 05, 2008, 04:55:08 PM »
I doubt much of this, and here are my reasons why:


Nikolay II was called mentally ill behind his back due to his voracious self-control, which many perceived as a mental illness. He also refused the Russian throne.

He didn't refuse the throne!

Quote
Chairman of the Third Duma Aleksander Guchkov, who received Nikolay II's abdication, openly asked: "Are we dealing with a normal, healthy individual?" But any sane person might ask such a question after learning that the Tsar killed as many as 1,400 pheasants per day, slaughtered 3,786 homeless dogs over 6 years, 6,176 cats and 20,547 crows. This was written in the Tsar's log of hunting trophies.

I have never heard this one. In addition to the fact that, as an animal lover, it would completely damage my opinion of him to know he went on rampages killing stray dogs and cats (not even counting the animals he hunted) the logistics of it do not make sense. Here we have the TSAR, a man who is basically a recluse and heavily guarded. How on earth is he supposed to slip about the city streets and open fields preying on stray dogs and cats? When? Where?

 Is this something made up during Soviet times to make him look like a psychopath and has survived in some sort of reference book? He kept and loved many pets. It doesn't sound like him.


Quote
In 1891, Nikolay II received a head wound from a police officer who was attempting to kill him. Perhaps this affected his mental well-being.

A policeman? I had always heard it was a deranged lunatic with a samurai sword! Where did this come from?


Quote
The book hints that Bismarck sent an ill fiancee to the Russian Court to prevent the birth of a healthy heir. Her name was Aleksandra Fedorovna. Her blood was said to be "infected with poison." Nikolay II's fiancee was genetically inclined to bearing hemophiliac offspring. She was in poor health and moved around by wheelchair.

Who said it was 'infected with poison?'

She did not have to be moved about in a wheelchair as a fiancee', but only many years later after the births of all the children and much stress. This makes it look like Nicky married a cripple.

Quote
Numerous charlatans offered her various recipes for bearing a male child. The French Dr. Phillip helped her to finally give birth to a boy Aleksey and Georgiy Rasputin assisted taking care of the child.

Rasputin was right!

Come on, Dr. Phillip(e) helped her have a boy? Says who? It was just a 50-50% chance just like the girls.

Quote
  Baroness Buksgevden

Does this mean Sophie Buxhoevedon?

Quote
When the last Russian Tsar Aleksey was born, a sick hemophiliac, his illness became a state secret. Thus, loyalty to the Tsar became more important than professionalism

He was not the last Tsar.

This person has much wrong.
« Last Edit: April 05, 2008, 05:01:01 PM by Annie »

Offline Dominic_Albanese

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #3 on: April 05, 2008, 05:02:00 PM »
Annie - I'm not going to argue with you point by point on this - clearly you have a great deal of time on your hands - it was (and is) an interesting article (which is what I typically post) - is it 100% accurate - let those who know more than me judge. 

dca

Offline Robert_Hall

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #4 on: April 05, 2008, 05:21:42 PM »
Annie, Nicholas was indeed not the "last Tsar"  that title was abolished in  1725 by Peter [the Great].  He was, however, the last Emperor, as his brother Michael was never proclaimed,  nor assumed the throne.  "Tsar" was a colloquialy term used, but was not  the official title of Romanov Emperors  & Empresses.
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Offline Annie

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #5 on: April 05, 2008, 05:41:37 PM »
Annie - I'm not going to argue with you point by point on this - clearly you have a great deal of time on your hands - it was (and is) an interesting article (which is what I typically post) - is it 100% accurate - let those who know more than me judge. 

dca

So by saying 'those who know more', you mean to say I don't know. I think everyone knows  that Alexei was not the last Tsar. Also, Phillipe the charlatan did NOT 'help (Alexandra) have a boy'! Alexandra was not in a wheelchair when she was young and engaged. These are facts.

I am still waiting for more info on the animals, I hope it's not true. I still don't believe it was a cop who attacked him in Japan.

But Alexei not being the last Tsar, and the Phillipe story alone destroy the '100% accurate' label.

Offline Annie

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #6 on: April 05, 2008, 05:42:32 PM »
Annie, Nicholas was indeed not the "last Tsar"  that title was abolished in  1725 by Peter [the Great].  He was, however, the last Emperor, as his brother Michael was never proclaimed,  nor assumed the throne.  "Tsar" was a colloquialy term used, but was not  the official title of Romanov Emperors  & Empresses.

It was Alexei they called the last Tsar, and the one I said wasn't.


Here's the quote:

Quote
When the last Russian Tsar Aleksey was born, a sick hemophiliac, his illness became a state secret

Robert, do you know if the dog and cat story is true?
« Last Edit: April 05, 2008, 05:45:00 PM by Annie »

Offline Sarai

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #7 on: April 05, 2008, 06:04:18 PM »
A policeman? I had always heard it was a deranged lunatic with a samurai sword! Where did this come from?

I have read in other sources that it was indeed a policeman who attacked him. I did a quick Internet search and there is a Wikipedia article about it, which says it was "one of his escort policemen." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otsu_Scandal

Now, Wikipedia may not be the most reliable source all of the time, but it does support what I have read in more reliable sources which I can't remember right now.

Offline halen

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #8 on: April 05, 2008, 06:27:54 PM »
Dominic, I second the "interesting article" motion. I read the article, tongue in cheek, at the obvisious faux pas. Whoever wrote that article won't be getting an "A" on that paper/article. However, I did have a few good laughs whilst reading it, so thank you for posting it.

Louise
There are those who look at things the way they are, and ask why... I dream of things that never were, and ask why not?

When he shall die
Take him and cut him out into stars
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That all the world will be in love with night,

Offline Annie

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #9 on: April 05, 2008, 06:35:07 PM »
what I have read in more reliable sources which I can't remember right now.

Sigh, me too. How many times I've posted this, only to be scolded, berided, chastised, called 'fact free', no source, etc. if I can't come up with it at the moment. I know what you mean, really, you read a lot, and you remember it, and know it, but you can't always put a page number to it on demand. Unfortunately a wealth of memory and background knowledge is meaningless to some if you can't prove it on the spot.

While I got accused of having 'too much time on my hands', I obviously don't have as much time on my hands as those who know all the page numbers and have them readily available. (like Bear)

If it was a cop, it was police brutality! He was insane and unstable and must have been fired.

I still stand behind the other stuff being wrong.
« Last Edit: April 05, 2008, 06:37:38 PM by Annie »

Offline mr_harrison75

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #10 on: April 05, 2008, 06:59:20 PM »
Annie, don't worry about that story! For my part, I don't believe it! Just think of the numbers of pheasant; all that in one day? He must've killed them with machine gun!  ::)

Very doubtful!

Offline Robert_Hall

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #11 on: April 05, 2008, 07:45:21 PM »
Sadly, Annie, I am afraid the stories of animal slaughters were true.  These are mentioned in  several bios.  It was fairly common, in those days [ and now as well, in some circles]  to shoot anything that moved.
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Offline mr_harrison75

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #12 on: April 05, 2008, 08:33:08 PM »
I must agree with Robert_Hall here; after all, hunting was the sport of princes. But that much in one day?

Offline halen

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #13 on: April 05, 2008, 08:37:19 PM »
Alas, numbers of animals slaughtered by Nicholas, and others is kinda disgusting, but true. On pages 292 and 293 of The Court of the Last Tsar by Greg King, there is a picture of Nicholas among the days kill and a discription on the next page of the animals killed.  

My question is, what the heck would you do with all that kill?

Louise
There are those who look at things the way they are, and ask why... I dream of things that never were, and ask why not?

When he shall die
Take him and cut him out into stars
And he shall make the face of heaven so fine
That all the world will be in love with night,

Offline Dominic_Albanese

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Re: News: How did the Russian Tsars die?
« Reply #14 on: April 06, 2008, 12:14:31 AM »
Annie - I'm not going to argue with you point by point on this - clearly you have a great deal of time on your hands - it was (and is) an interesting article (which is what I typically post) - is it 100% accurate - let those who know more than me judge. 

dca

So by saying 'those who know more', you mean to say I don't know. I think everyone knows  that Alexei was not the last Tsar. Also, Phillipe the charlatan did NOT 'help (Alexandra) have a boy'! Alexandra was not in a wheelchair when she was young and engaged. These are facts.

I am still waiting for more info on the animals, I hope it's not true. I still don't believe it was a cop who attacked him in Japan.

But Alexei not being the last Tsar, and the Phillipe story alone destroy the '100% accurate' label.

No Annie, I think I've been really clear.  You argue with anyone who dares to say something or post something you don't agree with and I will give you neither the pleasure, nor the opportunity, to argue with me.  This is a published article, of interest to many and that's good enough to post.

Can I be any clearer?  It's not *always* about you, your opinion, what you believe or who you've decided to to make the next victim or your attacks...

dca