Author Topic: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers  (Read 226377 times)

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Annie

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #345 on: February 17, 2008, 01:25:18 PM »
List of court cases proving mtDNA testing is valid and upheld

http://www.denverda.org/DNA/Mitochondrial_DNA_Legal_Decisions.htm

also from the Mitotyping site:

http://www.mitotyping.com/59859292811581/site/default.asp

Sixth Circuit Court Appellate Decision
A Mitotyping case, U.S. v. Beverly, was recently reviewed by the Sixth Circuit, and the science of mitochondrial DNA testing was upheld. This is one of the first federal appellate decisions concerning mitochondrial DNA.

helenazar

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #346 on: February 17, 2008, 01:47:40 PM »
The Innocence Project (or How DNA Evidence Overules All Other Evidence in the Court of Law).   

http://www.innocenceproject.org/

Unreliable and Limited Science

The arrival of DNA evidence in American courtrooms in the late 1980s and 1990s changed the criminal justice system forever. The widely accepted strength of DNA testing has led experts to call into question the reliability of other forms of forensics.   Where these older forms of forensic science could indicate that someone might have committed a crime, DNA can show whether someone is actually guilty or innocent.

Inexact sciences

For centuries, scientific and pseudo-scientific evidence has been used in courts of law. From blood typing and hair comparison to bite marks and ballistics, many questionable and limited forms of science and technical evidence have been – and still are – used to convict defendants in the United States.

Evidence that would traditionally call for comparisons of hair, bite marks and blood types can now be tested for DNA. While older forms of forensic sciences can narrow possibilities, DNA can provide definitive proof of innocence or guilt. Because of its power to conclusively reveal the truth, DNA testing should be used whenever it can be probative.

Misplaced trust

If evidence and lab tests are mishandled and not presented fairly to a jury, scientific evidence can carry a false appearance of reliability and lead to wrongful conviction. A jury hears that science supports the prosecution’s theory – but it doesn’t always hear that the science may be unreliable or inexact. The Innocence Project has worked on cases in which:

Hair evidence was said to microscopically match the defendant and only 1 in 10,000 people. It was impossible to prove this statistic.
A jury was told by a scientist that biological evidence matched the defendant’s blood type. The jury was not told that 41 percent of the public also matched.
An incorrect bite mark match led an innocent man to death row.
Faulty science — under a microscope
To this day, the microscopic comparison of hairs, particles and fibers is used in courtrooms as evidence of guilt. In some cases, it is the only evidence used to convict a defendant.

These tests have never stood up to real scientific scrutiny. DNA results have shown again and again that these tests, as performed, lack sufficient reliability and frequently produce erroneous results. The advent of mitochondrial DNA testing has given scientists much stronger evidence, even when comparing only a fragment of a hair.

The limits of a blood type

Before DNA testing, bodily fluids collected from crime scenes were routinely tested for blood type. This practice is known as serology. While this form of forensic science has often been reliable, it has substantial limits.

Conventional serology lacks the discriminating power of DNA. It often failed to exclude suspects who are innocent. Serology could only determine whether a suspect is a member of the population of potential donors who could have deposited biological evidence at a crime scene. In many DNA exoneration cases, at the original trial, serologists either failed to disclose the very limited utility of the test or mistakenly misapplied statistical principles. In both situations, juries were misled and innocent people were convicted.



Annie

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Alixz

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #348 on: February 18, 2008, 09:19:54 AM »
One can only hope that DNA is positive and so completely accurate that the need for jury trials in assault, rape, murder, and any other type of "aggravated" case will no longer be necessary.  The defendant will have no recourse but to plead guilty and take the punishment meted out.

What a relief that would be to those jurists who (like me) feel incapable of making a decision that would in any way effect the life of another so profoundly. I have never served on a criminal case, but to think that I might be responsible for convicting an innocent person or letting a guilty one go would keep me up at night for the rest of my life.  Who am I, as uneducated in legal matters as I am, to pass judgement on anyone while lawyers for both sides are conniving and rearranging evidence to suit their side of the case?

Annie

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #349 on: February 19, 2008, 06:03:13 PM »
This is my email response from Dr. Terry Melton herself after I wrote her asking about the AA case. She gave me permission to quote her.

My response to you is the same that I give to everyone who questions the legitimacy of the Anderson results:

    Multiple labs got the same results on different tissues (hair/intestinal tissues) at different times.  Independent testing such as this is best practice in forensic testing, especially when the results are going to be scrutinized at the level of this case.  It is highly unlikely that the same results would be obtained in different labs if the work was shoddy.  More likely, the labs would have gotten different results that made no sense compared to each other.

    The science that was used is basic, and the methods, while becoming more sensitive and streamlined since the time of the original tests, were and are designed to get at the most basic building blocks of human identity: the DNA sequence.  The DNA sequence cannot change when the methods change.  There is no more elemental level of inspection.

As in all fascinating historical mysteries, conspiracy theories will abound. I can address only the lab process.

Conspiracy theories don't worry me.  The weight of well-conceived and time-tested protocols carried out by laboratories with impeccable credentials and nothing to gain from either answer are behind all the results, which have been published in scientific, peer-reviewed literature.

    I hope this helps.

    Best wishes,

    Terry Melton

helenazar

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #350 on: February 19, 2008, 06:34:46 PM »
Here is the page that contains information about Mitotyping Technologies, including Dr Melton's credentials - in case anyone has doubts about those - you can check out her CV.. It also has links to mtDNA information and other relevant stuff...

http://www.mitotyping.com/598591928115356/blank/browse.asp?a=383&BMDRN=2000&BCOB=0&c=51377&598591928115356Nav=%7C26%7C&NodeID=87


helenazar

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #351 on: February 20, 2008, 07:24:56 PM »
This is very interesting...

Ben Franklin's tooth: http://www.roperld.com/FranklinBenTooth.htm#pictures



Annie

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #352 on: April 21, 2008, 08:56:57 PM »
DNA tests are being used to find out which kids belong to which polygamists, since everyone refuses to tell.

http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080422/ap_on_re_us/polygamist_retreat;_ylt=Agj82MfBBjTcaAB7WVdjitRH2ocA

DNA samples taken from polygamists' kids

By MICHELLE ROBERTS, Associated Press Writer 1 hour, 36 minutes ago

SAN ANGELO, Texas - Using cotton swabs and cameras, lab technicians began taking DNA samples Monday from hundreds of children and mothers — wearing long, pioneer-style dresses — in hopes of sorting out the tangled family relationships within the West Texas polygamist sect.


A judge ordered last week that the genetic material be taken to help determine which children belong to which parents.

Authorities need to figure that out before they begin custody hearings to determine which children may have been abused and need to be permanently removed from the sect compound in Eldorado, and which ones can be safely returned to the fold.

State social workers have complained that over the past few weeks, sect members have offered different names and ages. Also, the children refer to all of their fathers' wives as their "mothers," and all men in the community as "uncles."

The testing went on behind closed doors at the crowded coliseum where the children seized in the raid earlier this month on the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints compound are staying.

The collecting of DNA is likely to take 10 technicians most of the week, and it will be a month or more before the results are available, said Janiece Rolfe, a spokeswoman for the Texas attorney general's office.

Rod Parker, an FLDS attorney, acknowledged that family names within the sect can be confusing, but said: "No one is trying to deceive anyone. ... It's not sinister." Instead, he said that because many of the sect's marriages are not legal, adults and their children may legally have one name but use another within the community.

The April 3 nighttime raid on the 1,700-acre compound probably frightened the children, said Ken Driggs, who has studied the sect extensively. "If somebody had taken the time to approach them in a way that was respectful, they probably would have gotten the information they needed," Driggs said.

The children will be placed in group homes or other quarters until individual custody hearings can be completed by early June. Officials said they will try to keep siblings together when possible, though some polygamous families may have dozens of siblings.

The testing will involve 437 children and possibly hundreds of adults. State authorities revised their count of the children from 416 as they developed better lists and discovered that not all the female members who claimed to be adults were over 18.

The testing will be more far complicated than that of the typical custody or support case.

In a typical custody case, "maternity is already established," Rolfe said, but in this case, researchers will have to determine the identity of both parents.

Each person who submits to a test will be photographed, and the inside of his or her cheek will be swabbed to remove cells for analysis.

The DNA sampling is an enormous undertaking for a state that typically tests only 1,000 children a year.

Some of the adults have ordered by the state of Texas to submit to testing. Others are being asked to do so voluntarily. But how many will do that is unclear.

Parker said he is afraid authorities secretly intend to use the DNA to build criminal cases. But state Child Protective services spokesman Greg Cunningham said: "We're not involved in the criminal investigation. That's not our objective."

Authorities believe the sect forces underage girls into marriages with older men. No one has been arrested, but a warrant has been issued for member Dale Barlow, a convicted sex offender who has said he has not been to the Texas site in years.

Attorneys for the children and the adults have complained that they haven't had enough access to their clients at the coliseum. Texas District Judge Barbara Walther ordered Monday that the women and children in the be allowed to use newly installed phone lines to contact their attorneys.

The judge also asked the attorneys to look for a Mormon volunteer to help watch over twice-daily prayers after attorneys for the women who remain with young children at the coliseum complained they weren't given enough freedom to hold their usual prayer service. CPS has said it has no intention of infringing on their religious rights but wants to be sure the women aren't conspiring to tamper with witnesses in the custody case.

"The way our clients pray is sacred to them, but it becomes less sacred when they feel people from the department are monitoring them," said Andrea Sloan, a lawyer for some of the women.

Walther suggested that volunteers from the mainline Mormon church — of which FLDS is a renegade sect — might be able to provide monitoring without undermining the sacredness of the services.

The attorneys for the mothers and children agreed to look for someone at a local stake who would be willing to help.

helenazar

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #353 on: April 29, 2008, 01:56:04 PM »
Another victory for DNA science!

Man cleared by DNA free after 27 yearshttp://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/04/29/dna.exoneration.ap/index.html

DALLAS, Texas (AP) -- A Dallas man who spent more than 27 years in prison for a murder he didn't commit was freed Tuesday, after being incarcerated longer than any other wrongfully convicted U.S. inmate cleared by DNA testing.   

James Lee Woodard had been in prison for more than 27 years before DNA cleared him.

 James Lee Woodard stepped out of the courtroom and raised his arms to a throng of photographers.

Supporters and other people gathered outside the court erupted in applause.

"No words can express what a tragic story yours is," state District Judge Mark Stoltz told Woodard at a brief hearing before his release.

Woodard, cleared of the 1980 murder of his girlfriend, became the 18th person in Dallas County to have his conviction cast aside. That's a figure unmatched by any county nationally, according to the Innocence Project, a New York-based legal center that specializes in overturning wrongful convictions.

"I thank God for the existence of the Innocence Project," Woodard, 55, told the court. "Without that, I wouldn't be here today. I would be wasting away in prison."

Overall, 31 people have been formally exonerated through DNA testing in Texas, also a national high. That does not include Woodard and at least three others whose exonerations will not become official until Gov. Rick Perry grants pardons or the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals formally accepts the ruling of lower courts that have already recommended exoneration.

Woodard was sentenced to life in prison in July 1981 for the murder of a 21-year-old Dallas woman found sexually assaulted and strangled near the banks of the Trinity River.

He was convicted primarily on the basis of testimony from two eyewitnesses, said Natalie Roetzel, the executive director of the Innocence Project of Texas. One has since recanted in an affidavit. As for the other, "we don't believe her testimony was accurate," Roetzel said.

Like nearly all the exonorees, Woodard has maintained his innocence throughout his time in prison. But after filing six writs with an appeals court, plus two requests for DNA testing, his pleas of innocence became so repetitive and routine that "the courthouse doors were eventually closed to him and he was labeled a writ abuser," Roetzel said.

"On the first day he was arrested, he told the world he was innocent ... and nobody listened," Jeff Blackburn, chief counsel for the Innocence Project of Texas, said during Tuesday's hearing.

Annie

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #354 on: May 04, 2008, 04:43:34 PM »
DNA tests increase mystery of Schiller, who's buried in his grave? Not him!

http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080504/ap_en_ot/germany_schiller_mystery

Annie

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #355 on: July 03, 2008, 06:25:08 PM »
Score another one for the Innocence project, and how DNA overrules all other evidence in courts!

http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080703/ap_on_re_us/dna_exoneration

helenazar

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #356 on: July 19, 2008, 02:29:46 PM »
Case shows importance of DNA tests...

BOULDER, Colorado (CNN) -- The father of murder victim JonBenet Ramsey hopes that something worthwhile can result from his family's tragedy: More emphasis on collecting DNA from every felon in the United States.
 
The latest round of sophisticated DNA testing clears John Ramsey, his late wife Patsy, and their son, Burke.
2 of 2 On Wednesday, authorities announced that recently developed "touch DNA" technology had cleared all members of JonBenet Ramsey's family of her slaying. The family had lived under a cloud of suspicion for nearly 12 years.

Boulder County District Attorney Mary Lacy formally apologized in a letter to John Ramsey.

In an interview with CNN affiliate KUSA, John Ramsey said what is needed is "a law that requires police agencies to DNA print individuals arrested for felony and put it in the national database."

"We have a great national database that's been set up; it's been in place for a number of years with very little population in it. There's a huge backlog of DNA samples from crimes scenes and some states submit samples, some states don't."

John Ramsey had a message for lawmakers.

"For those that will have the authority and the power to pass this DNA legislation I think is so important. . . It just hasn't gotten on the radar in a lot of state legislatures, and it needs to be there.

"If we could achieve that then at least I would feel like we've contributed something to better society," Ramsey said.

As it stands now, it could still take years for authorities to arrest the real killer in the JonBenet case because of a backlog in the FBI's DNA database, the Ramsey family attorney said Thursday.

Atlanta attorney Lin Wood said there is a backlog of over "tens of thousands" of DNA evidence-related crime cases that have yet to be put into the DNA database.

Wood pointed to the Colorado murder case of 23-year-old Savannah Chase that recently got a DNA match 10 years after the crime as an example of how long a family sometimes has to wait.

"We know DNA evidence identifies killers. We know DNA exonerates innocent individuals, but unfortunately sometimes it takes years before you get that hit," Wood told CNN's "American Morning." 

Prosecutor Lacy apologized Wednesday for the suspicions that had surrounded the Ramsey family since the 1996 discovery of 6-year-old JonBenet's body. 

Late last year, Lacy ordered a test using new methodology known as "touch" testing on genetic material found on a pair of long johns that had been pulled up over the girl's underwear. That material matched DNA that was found on the girl's underwear and under her fingernails in a test conducted in 1998. The DNA belongs to an unidentified man, Lacy said.

This second match was "powerful evidence" that allows investigators to believe that the Ramsey family were victims in the crime and not suspects, Lacy said Wednesday.

John Ramsey found his daughter's body in the basement of the family's Boulder, Colorado, home on December 26, 1996. The girl had been strangled and beaten.

Early on in the case, Boulder police said that the young girl's parents, John and Patsy Ramsey, and their son, Burke, were under "an umbrella of suspicion" in JonBenet's death, although they were never officially named as suspects.

Wood praised Lacy's work Thursday and said he hoped a DNA match could be found soon.


"I am very hopeful it will happen and I'd like to believe that it will not be in the too distant future," Wood said.

John Ramsey also told CNN affiliate KUSA that his wife, who died in 2006 after a lengthy battle with ovarian cancer, would also be "thankful for the continuing efforts to find the killer."

http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/07/10/ramsey.dna/index.html#cnnSTCText

helenazar

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #357 on: August 05, 2008, 05:17:05 PM »

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Re: DNA RESOURCEs: Romanov-related scientific papers
« Reply #358 on: December 05, 2008, 09:32:16 AM »
Interfax:  http://www.interfax-religion.com/?act=news&div=5451

Yekaterinburg, December 5, Interfax - U.S. experts are certain that it was the 'first' burial site near Yekaterinburg where the authentic remains of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia were found, said Dr. Michael Coble, the research director at the U.S. Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory.

The laboratory examined three types of DNA and compared them to the DNA of Prince Alexei, the son of Nicholas II, and Andrei Romanov, a cousin of Nicholas II, and the examination of all three results dispels all doubts, Coble told journalists in Yekaterinburg.

Eleven family members of the last Russian emperor Nicholas II and his fellows were executed in the early hours of July 17, 1918 at the order of the Presidium of the Ural Regional Soviet.

A burial site in which there were remains of nine people was found on Staraya Koptyakovskaya road near Yekaterinburg in July 1991. Those were the remains of Nicholas II, his spouse Alexandra Fyodorovna, 46, daughters Olga, 22, Tatyana, 21, Anastasia, 17, as well as his fellows Yevgeny Botkin, 53, Anna Demidova, 40, Alois Trupp, 62, and Ivan Kharitonov, 48.

Years after, fragments of bones and teeth were recovered from the so-called 'second' burial site during archeological exploration on July 29, 2007. Russian and international experts confirmed that what was found there are the remains of Prince Alexei and Grand Duchess Maria.

Proud_Olga

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