Author Topic: Henry, Cardinal York (Henry IX)  (Read 3795 times)

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palatine

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Henry, Cardinal York (Henry IX)
« on: January 03, 2006, 10:52:26 AM »
Henry seems to have been the Old Pretender's favorite son, though he maintained a good relationship with his older brother while they were growing up.  In 1745, Charles Edward praised Henry to his Scottish followers, assuring them that he was very high-spirited and intelligent.

Henry was left behind in France when Charles Edward made his attempt in Scotland.  Henry kept the French court informed of Charles Edward's successes, and was eventually given permission to bring some troops and munitions to his brother.  Due to communication problems, Henry's troops and supplies never left France, since he didn't know whether he should take them to Scotland or England, which ports were safe, etc.  On his return, Charles Edward fought with Henry over his failure to bring over the troops and supplies; he seems to have held a grudge against him for the rest of his life.

Henry took religious vows soon after his brother's return, to the dismay of Charles Edward, who saw Henry's decision as yet another betrayal.  

According to John MacLeod's "Dynasty: The Stuarts", Henry chose a religious life because he was gay and had no wish to marry.
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by palatine »

bell_the_cat

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Re: Henry, Cardinal York (Henry IX)
« Reply #1 on: January 03, 2006, 11:04:51 AM »
Here's an interesting link on Cardinal York (in Italian unfortunately!)

http://digilander.libero.it/giovannidallorto/biografie/stuart/stuart.html

Palatine, do you know why CE saw Henry's decision to enter holy orders as a betrayal?

palatine

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Re: Henry, Cardinal York (Henry IX)
« Reply #2 on: January 03, 2006, 11:17:27 AM »
Charles Edward wanted to make another attempt on England and Scotland in the future; he wanted his brother to help him raise foreign support for the effort, and fight by his side when the time came.  Charles Edward believed that by taking religious vows, Henry was giving up on their dream of a Stuart restoration; he was right.  

Unlike Charles Edward, Henry understood that their supporters in Scotland were utterly broken by the battle of Culloden and its aftermath.  Henry also realized that if the English hadn't risen in 1745, they were hardly likely to do so later, and he was in a good position to know that Louis XV had no intention of backing another Stuart attempt anytime soon.  Henry let the dream go, while Charles Edward, who had come thisclose to seeing it come true, could not.

bell_the_cat

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Re: Henry, Cardinal York (Henry IX)
« Reply #3 on: January 03, 2006, 11:24:38 AM »
He might at least have gone with his brother to Scotland in '45!

palatine

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Re: Henry, Cardinal York (Henry IX)
« Reply #4 on: January 03, 2006, 11:32:32 AM »
The Stuarts had a custom of keeping their heirs in places of safety during times of trouble.

During the Civil War, Charles I allowed his sons Charles and James to witness the battle of Edgehill, but kept them in safe locations afterwards; he made certain that his namesake left the country rather than get captured by Parliament.  When Charles II went to Scotland in 1650, he left James behind so that if he was killed, James would be available to lead the family.  

Charles Edward probably had these precedents in mind when he chose to leave Henry behind in France.  He was also counting on Henry to bring reinforcements and supplies to him once he established himself in Scotland.  It wasn't Henry's fault that he was unable to do so, though Charles Edward didn't see it that way.

A biography of Henry from mcferran's website:

http://www.jacobite.ca/kings/henry.htm
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by palatine »

mcferran

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Re: Henry, Cardinal York (Henry IX)
« Reply #5 on: January 03, 2006, 10:26:00 PM »
Quote
He might at least have gone with his brother to Scotland in '45!

Henry certainly tried to get to Scotland.  His father King James III wrote to King Louis XV, "He cannot endure the idea of having to remain in Rome while his brother is in Scotland."  For several months Henry was at Dunkirk waiting for an opportune moment for a French fleet to cross to England or Scotland undetected - but it never came.  Henry certainly tried his best to get the French to move, but his youth worked against him.  His brother the Prince Regent never forgave him for not having been successful.

--
Noel S. McFerran

mcferran

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Re: Henry, Cardinal York (Henry IX)
« Reply #6 on: January 03, 2006, 10:31:09 PM »
Quote
Charles Edward believed that by taking religious vows, Henry was giving up on their dream of a Stuart restoration; he was right.  

Unlike Charles Edward, Henry understood that their supporters in Scotland were utterly broken by the battle of Culloden and its aftermath.  Henry also realized that if the English hadn't risen in 1745, they were hardly likely to do so later, and he was in a good position to know that Louis XV had no intention of backing another Stuart attempt anytime soon.  Henry let the dream go, while Charles Edward, who had come thisclose to seeing it come true, could not.

I think that this is a misunderstanding of Henry.

First, he never took religious vows.  He was made a cardinal, and then he did get ordained, but he never entered a religious order or congregation.

Henry certainly never gave up on the "dream of a Stuart restoration".  He just saw that his role was going to be different from that which his brother had.  As a cardinal he was able to do a great deal first for his father, and later for his brother.  He certainly used all of his energies to try to get his brother recognised as king by the pope when their father died.  When his brother died, he made it very clear that he had now inherited all his royal rights.

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Noel S. McFerran

palatine

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Re: Henry, Cardinal York (Henry IX)
« Reply #7 on: January 07, 2006, 12:26:41 PM »
We'll have to agree to disagree about whether or not Henry gave up.  I think he did, because becoming a Cardinal and settling down in Italy did nothing towards restoring his family in England and Scotland.  While it is true that Henry never recognized the Hanoverian regime or ceded his rights, I don't think Henry made any active effort to coordinate Jacobites in England or Scotland, or marshal foreign support for an invasion after he decided to pursue what proved to be a sincere religious vocation.  

Henry, who was a very intelligent man, probably realized that if the English refused to rise in 1745, it was unlikely that they would rise for them later.  He must have recognized that the fallout in Scotland from his brother's campaign made it unlikely that the Scots could or would rise for them again.

Fighting to win papal recognition of his brother's title was a kind gesture, but the Pope was not the kind of foreign potentate that the Stuarts needed in their corner.  
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by palatine »