Author Topic: Notable Stuart Noblemen  (Read 5172 times)

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Offline Prince_Lieven

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Notable Stuart Noblemen
« on: May 06, 2006, 11:17:02 AM »
Here's a thread to discuss noblemen who served the Stuarts - from Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, to Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, and the Dukes of Lauderdale and Ormonde, who served Charles II, and Charles's 'Cabal' (which included Lauderdale, I think). Then of course there's William III's favourites, the Earls of Albermarle and Portland (I think). If I've forgotten anyone, please mention them!
"How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth?"
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"Men forget, but never forgive; women forgive, but never forget."

Offline Prince_Lieven

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #1 on: May 06, 2006, 11:30:51 AM »


John Maitland (1616-1682) was an ardent Presbyterian who served Charles I on his privy council in 1644. He was a supporter of Charles II during his long exile, and had great influence over him. Hyde, however, didn't like him. He was made Secratary of State for Scotland in (I think) 1660. He was part of the Cabal, and in spite of his apparent influence over Charles, the King didn't tell him of the Secret Treaty of Dover. He did, however, make him Duke of Lauderdale and Earl of March and made Lord President of the Privy Council in Scotland.

He seems to have been unpopular with other ministers (the House of Commons wanted his removal in 1678) but always had the support of Charles II. He resigned in 1680 and was stripped of all his positions in 1682.

He married (1) Anne Home (d. 1671), a descendant of Elizabeth Woodville, and had:
* Mary Maitland (d. 1702), married John Hay, Marquess of Tweeddale.

He married (2) Elizabeth Murray, Countess of Dysart (d. 1698) widow of Sir Lionel Tollemache. It was a childless marriage. Fraser describes Elizabeth as 'formiddable'.
"How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth?"
-Sherlock Holmes

"Men forget, but never forgive; women forgive, but never forget."

bell_the_cat

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #2 on: May 07, 2006, 08:12:13 AM »
The Duke of Lauderdale made it his business to support the King's policy on everything. His wife was very high maintenance. In Scotland they behaved as viceroys, which meant that imaginative fundraising ideas were required to keep it all going. Initially doubtful about the King's policy of enforcing Episcopalianism in Scotland, he became round to it after he noted the potential of fines for Presbyterians!

He was succeeded as the Earl of Lauderdale by his brother Charles, who married Elizabeth Lauder, a woman who shares the name of my own mother!
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by bell_the_cat »

Offline Prince_Lieven

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #3 on: May 07, 2006, 10:50:25 AM »
Quote
The Duke of Lauderdale made it his business to support the King's policy on everything. His wife was very high maintenance. In Scotland they behaved as viceroys, which meant that imaginative fundraising ideas were required to keep it all going. Initially doubtful about the King's policy of enforcing Episcopalianism in Scotland, he became round to it after he noted the potential of fines for Presbyterians!

Thanks a lot for the info Bell.

Quote
He was succeeded as the Earl of Lauderdale by his brother Charles, who married Elizabeth Lauder, a woman who shares the name of my own mother!

Shame your mum doesn't also share the title! ;)

Does anyone know anything about Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford - what did he do before serving Charles I?
"How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth?"
-Sherlock Holmes

"Men forget, but never forgive; women forgive, but never forget."

palatine

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #4 on: May 08, 2006, 12:19:31 PM »
Quote
Quote
Does anyone know anything about Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford - what did he do before serving Charles I?

Wentworth was a wealthy landowner who became a member of the House of Commons in 1614.  He was a bitter critic of the royal policies, and became one of the leaders of the malcontents.  He was an excellent public speaker with a ruthless personality, so Charles decided to win him over with a barony in 1628, which worked like a charm.  Wentworth became one of Charles's close friends, a firm backer of the personal rule, as well as a supporter of the religious reforms and changes that Charles and Archbishop Laud wanted to make.  Wentworth backed Charles’s Hispanophile policies for the sake of the subsidies they brought to the royal coffers, which helped make the personal rule possible.  

He was sent to Ireland in 1633 to govern it in Charles's name.  Ireland was a cash cow, if properly exploited, and exploit it Wentworth did.  He was later aided in his task by his young apprentice, James Butler, the “noble” Duke of Ormonde.  Wentworth made a great deal of money for Charles, and a small fortune for himself, through harsh behavior that helped sow the seeds for the rebellion that broke out there in 1641.

In 1639, Wentworth returned to London to help Charles solve his problems vis-a-vis Scotland, which had revolted and raised a standing army thanks to the prayer book Charles had tried to enforce there.  Wentworth realized that only Parliament could raise enough money to pay for and equip a large English army, and urged Charles to call one.  Charles ennobled Wentworth as the Earl of Strafford, basically so that he could control the House of Lords.  The Short Parliament, as it was later called, did not give Charles any money but lambasted him, which led him to dissolve it.  Strafford and Charles glumly took the field at the head of a small and poorly equipped army that had a dearth of men with military experience, and they were handily defeated by the redoubtable Scottish army.  This led to what became known as the Long Parliament, which the Scots basically forced Charles to call.

As soon as it opened, the Long Parliament went after Strafford.  He was charged with high treason, arrested, and sent to the Tower.  He defended himself ably and beat the charges, so Parliament put him under attainder, which would allow his execution to take place anyway if Charles signed his death warrant.  

Charles tried to save his life, as he’d promised him that he would.  Parliament decided to freak Charles out and simultaneously display its power:  a mob surrounded Whitehall, calling for Strafford’s death and threatening Henrietta Maria.  The mob terrified Charles and his wife and children; they barricaded themselves inside the palace and armed those courtiers and attendants that they could trust.  Charles realized that the palace was indefensible and escape was impossible, so he signed the death warrant and made other concessions.  The mob promptly dispersed.

He soon regretted what he’d done, and wrote a letter that asked Parliament to spare Strafford’s life, if only for a few days, and sent his eleven year old son, the future Charles II, to deliver it.  The letter did no good.  Strafford was beheaded as a scapegoat for Charles’s behavior since his reign began, and as a warning that compromise with Parliament would be necessary if he wanted to keep his crown.

Charles never forgave himself for failing to save Strafford’s life, and later said that he deserved everything bad that had happened to him afterwards, since he’d broken his word to his friend.  
  
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by palatine »

Offline Prince_Lieven

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #5 on: May 08, 2006, 12:49:47 PM »
Thanks for the info Palatine, interesting stuff, especially that about Strafford initially being a royal critic but being won over by a barony. BTW, he did have a distant royal connection, through descent from the Nevilles and Percys.
"How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth?"
-Sherlock Holmes

"Men forget, but never forgive; women forgive, but never forget."

palatine

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #6 on: May 10, 2006, 08:52:17 PM »
I don't know if he counts as a nobleman per se, since he wasn't blue-blooded, but Sir Jeffrey Hudson, "Lord Minimus", was one of the most interesting and loyal of the Stuart courtiers.

Jeffrey was a dwarf who was less than twenty inches tall.  The first Duke and Duchess of Buckingham gave him as a gift to Henrietta Maria when he was only a child.  She treated him as a friend, looked after his education, and converted him to Catholicism.  She even sent him on missions on her behalf, such as a journey to France to fetch a midwife for her.  In the course of that journey, his ship was captured by pirates, which he probably should have considered a bad omen for the future.

He remained loyal to Henrietta Maria as her troubles increased and multiplied, and was one of a select group chosen to go with her to Holland to sell jewels and buy weapons for the Royalist army.  He later returned with her to England and was made the captain of a regiment of cavalry in the Royalist army.  When she left England for France in 1644, he once more went with her.

It is probable that he really fought during the Civil War, for it was soon realized that he'd changed a great deal.  It's clear that he'd gained a great deal of self-confidence, for he made it known that he would no longer tolerate jokes and mockery about his lack of height, and that he wanted to be treated with respect.  He fought a duel (on horseback) against someone who teased him despite his warnings, and killed him.  This led to his banishment by Henrietta Maria, who abhorred dueling.  

Perhaps while returning to his family in England, he was captured by pirates and sent to Africa, where he found himself a slave.  He remained there for over twenty years, but was eventually rescued.  He returned to England but apparently rejected the idea of rejoining Henrietta Maria in France, probably because he hadn't forgiven her for his banishment.  She died before they had a chance to meet again and make peace.  Charles II and the Duke of Buckingham gave him occasional gifts of money, but it seems that he didn't become part of the court.  He reportedly died in debt and obscurity.  

A link to a picture of him and Henrietta Maria in happier days:

http://www.abcgallery.com/V/vandyck/vandyck27.html
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by palatine »

Offline Prince_Lieven

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #7 on: May 14, 2006, 07:44:03 AM »
Interesting stuff Palatine! But isn't it a little . . . odd that he was given to Henrietta Maria as if he was a gift rather than a person?  :-/

BTW, does anyone know anything about the Duke of Ormonde, who served Charles II? I don't even know his name!  :-[
"How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth?"
-Sherlock Holmes

"Men forget, but never forgive; women forgive, but never forget."

palatine

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #8 on: May 17, 2006, 08:15:35 PM »
Quote
BTW, does anyone know anything about the Duke of Ormonde, who served Charles II? I don't even know his name!  :-[

His name was James Butler.  He was the scion of a rich and ancient Irish family.  He was orphaned at an early age and grew up in the household of the Archbishop of Canterbury, where he embraced the Anglican faith.  As an adult, he increased his power in Ireland by marrying an heiress, adhering to the Anglican faith, keeping in touch with powerful friends at court, and by becoming the Earl of Strafford’s protégé.  

After Strafford’s fall, he was put in charge of Ireland.  He failed to prevent or subdue the Catholic rebellion, which was sparked in large part because of Strafford's policies, which he'd continued.  During the Civil War, he found himself fighting both the Catholics and Parliament’s troops.  He was empowered by the king to negotiate with the Catholics in the hope of winning their support for the Royalist side.  Neither Charles I nor Ormonde wanted to make significant concessions, while the Catholics didn’t trust Ormonde, so it took a long time before an agreement of sorts was made.  It didn't last long and brought little help to Charles.  In 1647, Ormonde surrendered Dublin to Parliament rather than let the Catholics have it.  He grandiloquently announced that he “preferred English rebels to Catholic ones” but what he really preferred was to keep his estates in exchange for the city.
      
He later returned to Ireland and tried to make a new deal with the Catholics at the request of the royal family.  The Catholics were understandably reluctant to work with him and asked for someone else to be sent, but he refused to cede control to anyone but the Prince of Wales, who could not come at that time.  After the execution of Charles I, Cromwell prepared to go to Ireland, which brought temporary unity there as everyone freaked out.  Ormonde put up a fight of sorts after Cromwell landed in Dublin, but ultimately abandoned the Irish to their ghastly fate.  He was welcomed with open arms by his dear friend Edward Hyde and other cronies at Charles II’s court-in-exile.

He assisted Henry of Gloucester after he refused to convert to Catholicism and even sold his Garter to raise the money needed to take him away from Paris.  Circa 1657, he was given command of a regiment in the tiny army that Charles raised for service under the Spanish flag.  He proved to be so incompetent that James, Duke of York (later James II) quite rightly had him stripped of his command.  He was sent on a secret mission to London after Cromwell’s death in the hope that he could instigate a Royalist rising.  His flimsy disguise was penetrated and he was quietly warned to flee or face arrest.  He decided to dye his distinctive fair hair (he was nicknamed "James the White" because of it) to improve his disguise.  He whipped up some hair dye on a hot stove and, without giving it time to cool, poured it over his head.   ;D  Despite his burns, he was able to make his escape without incident.

After the Restoration, Ormonde got his estates back and was given more land grants as well as Ireland to run, etc.  He made certain that Charles honored Cromwell’s Irish land settlement, which dispossessed most of the Catholics and made the Anglican minority very powerful indeed.  Although he allowed some Catholics to get their land back, he did his best to keep them weak and subdued, and succeeded in that goal.  His best-known achievements were stopping Charles from giving Phoenix Park to one of his mistresses, and his efforts to make it possible for Irish cattle to be sold in England.  Ormonde enjoyed Phoenix Park and had no wish to lose the use of it to Lady Castlemaine, an inveterate enemy of Edward Hyde.  Raising cattle was a profitable business for large landowners in Ireland, who were largely Anglicans, so expanding the market was necessary to please that important power base.

After Hyde’s fall from power, Ormonde must have quaked in his boots.  He’d kept abreast of events at court through letters and visits, but he’d never made powerful friends outside of Hyde’s clique, so he found himself bereft of support among Charles’s inner circle.  Buckingham used all his power to fight him, and was even suspected of trying to have him murdered.  He was forced to give up his post in Ireland, only to get it back a few years later.  He lost his post for good once James II came to the throne.  

Thomas Carte wrote Ormonde's first biography in 1735.  Carte depicted him as a wonderful man who was loyal to the Stuarts and the Anglican faith through thick and thin.  The myth of the “noble” Duke of Ormonde was thus born, a myth which has been followed by English historians to this day.  In my opinion, with friends like Ormonde, the Stuarts didn’t need enemies.  If he’d behaved differently on any number of occasions, the fates of the Stuarts and the history of Ireland would not be such sad reading.
« Last Edit: December 31, 1969, 06:00:00 PM by palatine »

bell_the_cat

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #9 on: May 27, 2006, 12:06:14 PM »
Ouch!

Offline Prince_Lieven

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #10 on: May 27, 2006, 01:37:45 PM »
Thanks for the info palatine. I'm inclined to agree with your summing up after reading that!  :P
"How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth?"
-Sherlock Holmes

"Men forget, but never forgive; women forgive, but never forget."

AlexieNichole

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #11 on: August 02, 2006, 10:00:24 PM »
I have one more to add.  Actually one family to add.  The Livingstons of Scotland, not of the Highlands (the Highland Livingstons are in fact not suppose to be related to the Livingstons of the Edinburgh area) but of Lithinglow Palace and Kilsyth.  It was one of them that was the guardian of Mary Queen of Scots.  (and yes my last name is Livingstone)

The surname Livingston or Livingstone is of territorial origin from the lands of that name in West Lothian deriving from a Saxon named Leving, who settled in Scotland during the reign of Edgar (1097-1107). His grandson is designated in a charter of William the Lion "of Livingstone". His descendant, Sir William Livingstone accompanied King David II on his expedition to England in 1346 and it was from him he acquired the barony of Callander, Stirlingshire, whose heiress he married.

From the Callander branch descended the Livingstones of Dunipace, Kinnaird, Bonton and Westquarter. Sir James Livingstone of Callander was created Lord Livingston in 1458 and it was his descendant, William who was guardian of the young Mary Queen of Scots until she was conveyed to Inchmahome after the Battle of Pinkie. The 7th Lord Alexander was made 1st Earl of Linlithgow in 1600, a title that was forfeited when James, 5th Earl "came out" in the Rising of 1715. Likewise, Sir James Livingstone of Barncloich was stripped of his title of Viscount Kilsyth for the same crime.


bell_the_cat

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Re: Notable Stuart Noblemen
« Reply #12 on: August 03, 2006, 02:52:48 PM »
 Yes, and Mary Livingstone was one of the "four Maries" - the little girls who accompanied Mary Queen of Scots to be brought up at the court of France. We had a good thread on these women!

 :)